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圆柱滚子激光测量分选机设计及有限元分析

Development of Sorting Machine with Laser Measuring Cylindrical Roller Diameter and Finite Element Analysis of the Key Components

作者: 专业:机械制造及其自动化 导师:王续跃 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Cylindrical Roller, laser Sensor, Error Analysis, ANSYS Analysis, Sorting Machine

        滚动轴承一般是由内圈、外圈、滚动体和保持架组成,滚动体是滚动轴承的核心元件,由于它的存在,相对运动表面间才有滚动摩擦。滚子对轴承寿命的影响在理论上仅次于内圈的作用,因此,提高滚动体加工精度及按级分选滚动体对提高轴承制造业水平有着重要的作用。在滚子分选领域,采用千分表测量是应用最早,也是应用时间最长的手段,但随着滚子的产量不断提高,传统的方式不再适合当今的生产条件,研发新式的分选设备作为众多厂家以及科研院所的主要研究方向。经过不断的发展,分选机的分选效率从50-60个/分提高到100-120个/分,测量尺寸从20mm扩大至30mm,自动化水平有明显的变化,但基于现有分选机可测滚子尺寸适用范围小,仍应继续研发自动化程度更高、测量速度更高及更人性化的分选机。圆柱滚子激光测量分选机的研制是来自轴承企业的课题,本课题目的是依用户对产品的使用需求研制一种应用对象为圆柱滚子的分选机。课题研究的主要内容有以下几个方面:(1)在测量工艺方面,在总结得到现有滚子分选机的测量尺寸范围小的缺点后,该设备采用了不同于当前分选机的测量方式,提出了一种新式的利用激光传感器进行非接触式测量以获得滚子直径的方法;(2)进行分选机结构设计,实现用户需求。该装置采用一个5°的斜面与气缸联合动作实现送料,利用激光传感器对滚子直径进行测量,测后的滚子被传送链输送到指定位置,在高压气的作用下使滚子沿着落料管进入落料盒;(3)并对测量过程中由于随机误差,系统测量误差引起的对测量结果可能产生误差的原因进行分析,找出主要误差和次要误差,对可能产生的误差值进行量化,并提出避免和减少误差产生的方案;(4)对设备中的关键件进行有限元分析,保证实现预定功能。本设备采用非接触的测量方式,采用激光传感器能提高设备的测量精度,并且双排落料可使滚子分选效率达到120-150个/分,实现快速准确的分选目的,满足用户需求。构件进行ANSYS分析,对设计结果进行验证的同时进行结构改进设计。
    Rolling bearing is made up of inner ring, out ring, rollers and cage. Rollers are the most important component for rolling bearing and exist rolling friction between crankshaft and bearing due to it. It play an important role in the lifetime of bearing except innner ring in thoery. So improving the machining accuracy and selecting rollers by grading are the major work to inhance the ability of bearing manufacuring.In this field, adopting micrometer caliper is applied to select roller at first, and is the longest period method. But with the increasing of roller output, the traditonal method is not aviable to use in current time.Thus developing a new kind of machine is the need of many factories and research institution. After a long time development, its selecting efficiency raise from 50-60 units to 100-120 units per minute, and measuring size achieve to 30 micrometer. Because of these change, automation level have a great change. Although the development of sorting machine have experienced much feform, there are still lots of disadvantages, for example, narrow size extent. Developing a new kind of set which is more automatic, humanity and high efficiency is the major research direction.Development of Sorting with Laser Measuring in Cylindrical-Roller Diameter is from bearing industry, which work is to design a new machine used to selecting different diameter rollers to satisfy the need of customers. The primary work of the article as following:(1) In masuring field, after finding the drawback that is marrow size extent, this machine adopts a different method which make use of laser sensor to get the diameter of rollers to come true non-contact measuring.(2) Designing the structure of machine, and meet the need of customer. This set adopts a 5 degree inclined plane and air cylinder movement to complete automatic feeding, and takes advantage of laser sensor to obtain its diameter. After measuring, rollers will be transferred to a specific location, with that go into the box along the pipe with the help of high-pressure gas.(3) Besides, we make an analysis about error oucurred in measuring procedure due to random error, measuring process error, system error, and figure up the value of it,and give some advices to aviod or decrease it. (4) Making ansysis of the most important parts with finite element techonology to optomize structure, at the same time, it can test the result of design and achieve the customer’s purpose.Due to using non-contract measurement can reduce error existence, using transport in double rows can improve sorting speed to 120-150 emp, it will satisfy rapid, accuracy sorting demand.
        

圆柱滚子激光测量分选机设计及有限元分析

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1 绪论9-16
    1.1 技术背景9-11
    1.2 国内外轴承圆柱滚子分选机研究的现状11-15
    1.3 研究内容15-16
2 圆柱滚子激光测量原理16-23
    2.1 激光在尺寸测量中的应用16-20
        2.1.1 激光传感器及特点16-17
        2.1.2 激光进行尺寸测量的工作原理17-20
        2.1.3 激光在尺寸测量中的应用举例20
    2.2 圆柱滚子激光测量工作原理20-23
        2.2.1 测量原理20-21
        2.2.2 激光测量圆柱滚子的优点21-23
3 圆柱滚子激光测量分选机结构设计23-46
    3.1 产品功能需求分析23-25
    3.2 设计方法选择和产品方案设计25-28
        3.2.1 传统的机械设计过程25
        3.2.2 现代机械设计方法及选择25-26
        3.2.3 产品方案设计26-28
    3.3 分选机模块化分析28
    3.4 分选机结构设计28-44
        3.4.1 送料模块设计29-34
        3.4.2 测量模块设计34-36
        3.4.3 分料模块设计36-38
        3.4.4 传送模块设计38-40
        3.4.5 落料模块设计40-43
        3.4.6 机架模块设计43-44
    3.5 设备总体结构示意图44-45
    3.6 本章小结45-46
4 测量误差分析及误差消除方案的提出46-56
    4.1 误差分析的要素46-47
    4.2 随机误差47-50
        4.2.1 激光传感器的随机误差47
        4.2.2 被测物体热膨胀引起的误差47-48
        4.2.3 被测物体的颜色引起的误差48
        4.2.4 被测物体表面粗糙度引起的误差48
        4.2.5 被测物体尺寸产生的测量误差48-50
    4.3 系统测量误差50-55
        4.3.1 测量环境中杂质引起的误差50-53
        4.3.2 传感器定位引起的误差53-55
    4.4 本章小结55-56
5 测量工作台的静力学和模态分析56-65
    5.1 静力学和模态分析在结构设计中的应用56-57
    5.2 静力学和模态分析的求解步骤57-58
    5.3 测量工作台的静力学分析及结构优化58-63
        5.3.1 模型的建立59
        5.3.2 网格划分59-61
        5.3.3 模型加载及添加约束条件61
        5.3.4 变形量运算结果61-63
    5.4 测量工作台的模态分析63-64
    5.5 本章小结64-65
结论65-66
参考文献66-68
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况68-69
致谢69-71
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