中小型LNG船船体强度分析研究

Study on Strength Analysis of Small and Medium LNG Carriers

作者: 专业:船舶与海洋结构物设计制造 导师:马坤 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

small and medium LNG Carrier, Structural Strength, Finite Element, Whole Hull, Hold Frame

        液化天然气(Liquefied Natural Gas,缩写为LNG)是一种清洁能源。据统计,世界天然气贸易有75%是通过管道输送的,25%是以LNG形式通过海上运输的。因此,LNG船的开发与研究已成为当今的热点问题。目前,中小型LNG船的建造与研究已逐渐成为LNG船型的一个重要发展趋势。中小型LNG船并非是大型LNG船的尺度缩小,无论从结构设计还是内部设备等方面两者均存在本质差别。中小型LNG船是一种高技术、高附加值船舶,运载-163℃的液化天然气,因此其船型、货舱区结构形式、钢材的选用均有特殊要求。为保证船舶整体结构的安全性,需要在设计阶段确定其可能承受的各种载荷,并确保船舶在相应工况下的整体强度。本文对中小型LNG船船体强度分析的关键技术进行了较为详细的探讨,并给出了相应的技术途径和解决方法。以一艘6400m3LNG船为例,采用直接计算法对其整船强度和舱段强度进行了总强度评估,本文的计算结果可以为中小型LNG船的强度评估、船体结构优化提供有效依据,评估结果对同类型LNG船的设计开发具有指导意义。本文所做的工作主要有以下几方面:1收集和查阅大量国内外LNG船和LPG船的相关资料,根据相关规范的载荷要求,分析中小型LNG船的受力特点,得到与事实相符合的计算载荷,并给出有限元强度计算的边界条件。2研究中小型LNG船船体强度分析关键技术,以一艘6400m3 LNG船为例,对满载工况(14种)、压载工况(14种)分别进行了强度分析。对整船模型计算结果和舱段模型计算结果进行分析比较,并分析了其差异性的原因。3根据中小型LNG船的结构特点和强度计算结果,了解其在使用工况下的船体应力状态和变形状态,发现船体结构应力较高的部位,并分析其原因,为改进船体结构提供指导,提高结构安全性。4根据6400m3 LNG船整船模型有限元强度计算的结果,对该船的结构进行一定的改进,并在部分区域使用高强度钢,得到满足强度要求的船体结构形式。
    Liquefied Natural Gas (abbreviated as LNG) is a clean source of energy. According to the statistics,75% of the natural gas trade in the world is transported by pipes and 25% of them is transported by ships in the form of LNG.Therefore,the development and research of LNG carrier has become a hot issue.Currently, the construction and research of small and medium LNG carrier has become a important trends of LNG carrier. Small and medium LNG carrier is not the reduced scale of main dimention of large LNG carrier.There are essential differences between them not only in terms of structural design but also the internal equipment. Small and mediumLNG carrier is a kind of high-tech,high value ship carrying-163℃liquefied natural gas.So the ship form, the cargo area structure and the selection of the steel have special requirements.To ensure the safety of the overall structure of the ship,we need to determine the variety of loads at the design stage, and to ensure that the ship’s overall strength in the corresponding conditions.The paper makes a detailed discussion of strength analysis method of small and medium LNG carriers,and gives the corresponding technical approaches and solutions.The paper uses direct calculation method to assess the overall strength of whole hull and hold frame of 6400m3 LNG carrier..The results of this article can provide an effective basis for the strength assessment and structural optimization of small and medium LNG carriers.The results of the assessment can give a guidance for the design and development of the same type of ships.The main work of this paper are shown as the following aspects:1 Collect and read a large number of information about LNG carriers and LPG carriers. according to relevant regulations about the load requirement,analyze the mechanical characteristics of small and medium LNG carriers,and get the calculation load consistant with the fact,and give the boundary conditions for the finite element strength calculation.2 Study on the key technology of strength analysis method of small and medium LNG carriers,establish the finite element model of whole hull arid hold frame of a 6400m3 LNG carrier.Strength analysis are carried out on full load conditions(14 cases),ballast conditions (14 cases). The paper analyzes and compares the calculated results of the whole hull model and hold frame model.3 According to the structural characteristics of small and medium LNG carrier and the results of strength calculation, understand the stress state and the deformation state of the hull in using conditions,find the high stress parts of the hull structure,and find the reasons of it,to provide the guidance for the improvement of the hull structure,improve the safety of the structure.4 Refer to the finite element calculation results of the 6400m3LNG carrier,improve the structure of this ship,use high strength steel in some areas,get the hull structure form that meet the strength requirement.
        

中小型LNG船船体强度分析研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1 绪论9-17
    1.1 研究背景9-12
    1.2 国内外研究现状12-15
    1.3 研究价值15-16
    1.4 主要研究内容16-17
2 中小型LNG船概述17-21
3 船体强度直接计算方法21-42
    3.1 舱段结构模型计算方法25-39
        3.1.1 舱段模型25-28
        3.1.2 舱段模型设计载荷28-35
        3.1.3 舱段模型边界条件35-36
        3.1.4 舱段模型端面弯矩36-38
        3.1.5 舱段模型计算工况38-39
    3.2 整船结构模型计算方法39-40
        3.2.1 整船模型39
        3.2.2 整船模型设计载荷39-40
        3.2.3 整船模型边界条件40
        3.2.4 整船模型计算工况40
    3.3 强度校核标准40-42
4 6400m~3 LNG船强度直接计算实例42-65
    4.1 船体参数42
    4.2 舱段模型直接计算42-52
        4.2.1 舱段模型42-43
        4.2.2 舱段模型载荷计算43-46
        4.2.3 舱段模型计算结果46-51
        4.2.4 舱段模型计算结果分析51-52
    4.3 整船模型直接计算52-58
        4.3.1 整船模型52
        4.3.2 整船模型载荷计算52-53
        4.3.3 整船模型计算结果53-57
        4.3.4 整船模型计算结果分析57-58
    4.4 舱段模型与整船模型计算结果比较58-65
        4.4.1 屈服强度计算结果比较58-63
        4.4.2 屈服强度计算结果比较分析63
        4.4.3 整船模型与舱段模型计算结果差异原因探讨63-65
5 6400m~3 LNG船屈服强度计算结果校核与结构改进65-67
    5.1 强度校核65
    5.2 结构改进措施65-67
6 总结和展望67-69
    6.1 总结67-68
    6.2 展望68-69
参考文献69-71
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况71
攻读硕士学位期间参与项目情况71-72
致谢72-74
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