多通道无线气体传感器检测系统的设计与研究

Design and Research of Multi-channel Wireless Gas Sensor Detection System

作者: 专业:电路与系统 导师:戚金清 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Wireless Detection System, ARM, Linux Embedded, NRF24L01

        气体传感器检测系统是采集、处理气体传感器信号的有效工具。传统的气体检测系统多采用基于PC机式的系统或单节点嵌入式的系统,随着测量环境的日益复杂,快速发展的微系统技术、无线通信技术不断的融入检测系统中,各种新型无线智能化的气体传感器检测系统应运而生。基于以上背景,本文针对电阻型半导体气体传感器,提出一种分布式、多通道无线气体传感器检测系统。本文所设计的检测系统采用主从分布式结构:具有一个系统控制终端,作为主机;多个传感器采集节点,作为多个从机。采集节点与系统控制终端之间通信采用无线的方式,硬件上使用功耗低,性能好的NRF24L01芯片,以自定义的通信格式作为通信标准。整个系统构成一个无线点对多点通信的综合检测平台。采集节点以低功耗的MSP430单片机为核心,主要实现对传感器信号的准确采集;系统控制终端以ARM9处理器为核心、以嵌入式Linux操作系统为平台,主要实现接收各个采集节点的传感器数据,调整采集节点的工作模式及参数,及完成对传感器数据的综合处理。数据的显示与对系统的控制主要通过系统控制终端上的3.5寸的LCD触摸屏,本文开发的基于QT的综合控制程序,以用户界面的方式实现了这个功能。本文设计的检测系统采集传感器信号准确,经过实际测试,采集传感器信号误差小于1%;系统通信稳定,可靠性强,误码率可以达到10-5-10-6,在无障碍物干扰下系统控制终端与采集节点的有效通信距离可达100米;具有良好的人机交互界面,通过LCD用户可以查看各个节点传感器当前采集的信号及完成对系统的控制。整个系统为研究气体传感器的特性及气体传感器的实际应用提供了一个稳定可靠的平台,目前该系统已经在实验室投入使用。
    Gas sensor detection system is effective tools for collecting and processing sensor signals. Most of traditional gas detection system base on PC-type system or single model embedded system. Faced with increasingly complex measurement environment, and the rapid developed micro-system technology and wireless communication technology merging into detection system, a variety of new wireless intelligent gas sensor detection systems are coming into being. Based on the above background, this paper presents a kind of distributed wireless detection system for resistive type semiconductor gas sensor.The detection system designed in this paper applies master-slave distributed architecture: has only one system control terminal, as a host; has many acquisition nodes, as slaves. Acquisition nodes and system control terminal communicate by wireless means. The hardware used low power, good performance NRF24L01 chips. Communication standards used custom communication format. And the whole system constitutes a point to multipoint communication platform. Acquisition nodes with low power MSP430 microcontroller as its core, is responsible for collecting sensor data accurately. Control terminal with ARM9 processor as its core and embedded Linux operating system as its platform, is responsible for receiving sensors data, adjusting the acquisition node mode and parameters, and integrated treatment of sensor data. We control the system and sensors data display mainly through the 3.5-inch LCD touch screen. This paper has developed a comprehensive control program based on QT to achieve this functionality.The gas detection system this paper designed captured sensor signal accurately, and after the actual test, acquisition sensor signal error is less than 1%; System communication is stability and reliability. Error rate can be achieved 10-5-10-6 and in the case of no obstacles interference, effective communication distance can be achieved 100m; Having good man-machine interface, and users through the embedded control terminal can view current gas sensor singals and control the detection system; The system provides a platform for studying the characteristics of gas sensor and gas sensor practical application, and now the laboratory has been using this detection system.
        

多通道无线气体传感器检测系统的设计与研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5
1 绪论8-13
    1.1 课题的背景与研究意义8-9
    1.2 课题研究现状9-12
    1.3 课题研究目的与主要内容12-13
2 系统概述13-19
    2.1 系统结构13-14
    2.2 嵌入式微处理器14-15
    2.3 嵌入式操作系统15-16
    2.4 无线通信方案16-19
3 节点模块的软硬件设计19-32
    3.1 节点模块概述19-20
    3.2 节点模块硬件设计20-24
        3.2.1 MPS430单片机系统的硬件设计20-21
        3.2.2 采集电路的硬件设计21-23
        3.2.2 射频电路的硬件设计23-24
    3.3 节点模块软件设计24-32
        3.3.1 采集模块程序设计24-27
        3.3.2 射频模块程序设计27-30
        3.3.2 节点总体程序设计30-32
4 控制终端模块的软硬件设计32-57
    4.1 控制终端模块系统概述32
    4.2 控制终端硬件平台概述32-36
        4.2.1 存储器接口电路32-34
        4.2.1 LCD接口电路34-35
        4.2.1 射频芯片接口电路35-36
    4.3 控制终端系统移植36-39
        4.3.1 U-BOOT的移植36-37
        4.3.2 Linux内核移植37-38
        4.3.3 根文件系统定制38-39
    4.4 Linux下NRF24L01驱动程序设计39-49
        4.4.1 Linux驱动程序设计概述39-40
        4.4.2 Linux字符型驱动程序设计的关键技术40-44
        4.4.3 NRF24L01驱动程序设计44-49
    4.5 嵌入式图形界面环境的搭建49-51
    4.6 基于QT的控制终端综合程序设计51-54
    4.7 PC控制终端图形界面程序设计54-57
5 系统调试与性能分析57-62
    5.1 系统调试57-58
    5.2 系统性能分析58-62
结论62-63
参考文献63-66
附录A 采集节点模块电路PCB原理图66-67
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况67-68
致谢68-70
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