有障板时矢量声场特性与矢量信号处理技术研究

Research on the Characteristics of Acoustic Vector Field with Baffle and Vector Signal Processing Technology

作者: 专业:水声工程 导师:张揽月 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨工程大学

Keywords

vector hydrophone, baffle, sound field measurement, vector hydrophone array signal processing

        矢量水听器以其诸多优点,被广泛应用于水声测量和探测等领域。在取得大量研究成果的基础上,人们期望以矢量水听器为核心的声纳设备能进一步提高水声设备的性能。然而,声纳一般在潜艇、鱼雷、水雷等水下载体上使用,属于在有限空间使用,它会受到安装载体散射声场的影响,使水声设备性能下降。水下载体可视为某种形状的障板,因此本文对有障板情况下矢量声场的基本问题、矢量水听器接收性能及矢量阵列信号处理技术进行了理论和试验研究。首先,对水下不同障板近场散射的矢量声场分布以及对矢量水听器影响进行研究。以几个典型障板为例,推导了不同边界条件下散射声场各分量表达式,对不同障板条件下散射声场以及矢量水听器幅频特性、相频特性和接收指向性的变化进行理论分析和仿真研究。在此基础上,利用Matlab中PED工具箱的有限元计算方法,探讨了不同障板存在时以任意角度入射的平面波的散射声场分布情况。其次,研究了障板对阵列方位估计性能的影响,包括对声压阵和矢量阵的常规波束形成、MVDR波束形成和子空间分解法的方位估计技术的研究,以水声工程实际应用为背景,针对无限大平面障板的散射声场进行了理论推导和仿真,分析了不同障板对矢量水听器阵列性能影响,通过调整阵元空间分布,提高方位估计性能。最后,在水池中对不同障板进行了散射声场的测量试验研究,验证了理论分析的正确性,为矢量水听器的水声工程应用提供试验基础。
    Vector hydrophone has plenty of advantages, which is widely applied to underwater acoustic measurement and detection.Because of the abundant of research achievements, we expect the sonar, which based on the vector hydrophone, have higher performance. However, sonar generally use on the submarines, torpedoes, mines and other carrier, which belong to the limited space, and because of the sound scattering by the carrier, vector hydrophone can not work well as before. Therefore, the vector sound field with baffle and the performance of vector hydrophone and vector hydrophone array signal processing technology are researched in theory and experiment.Firstly, the characteristics of near-field scattering and the performance of vector hydrophone imposed by different baffle are researched. Take few typical baffle as examples, the expression of the vector sound field of scattering with different boundary are derived. The amplitude , phase and directivity of vector-hydrophone affected by different baffles are studied and simulated. Furthermore, using the finite element method of MATLAB PDE Toolbox, calculate the scattering sound field with baffles, which insonified by a plane wave at various angles of incidence.Secondly, research the influence of vector hydrophone array by the baffle. Including the ways of conventional beamforming based on the pressure and vector hydrophone array, MVDR beamforming and subspace decomposition algorithm. On the background of application in underwater acoustic field, set infinite baffle as an example, analyze and simulate the acoustic vector field and the performance of vector hydrophone array, adjust the spatial distribution of vector hydrophone array to improve the ability of direction of arrival estimation.Finally, through the measurement of scattering sound field, prove the consistency of experimental results and theoretical results. Meanwhile, it lays solid experimental foundation for the application of vector hydrophone in underwater acoustic engineering field.
        

有障板时矢量声场特性与矢量信号处理技术研究

摘要5-6
ABSTRACT6-7
第1章 绪论10-15
    1.1 本论文的目的和意义10
    1.2 国内外研究现状及分析10-13
        1.2.1 矢量水听器发展及应用现状10-11
        1.2.2 带障板的散射声场研究状况11-12
        1.2.3 矢量水听器信号处理发展概况12-13
    1.3 本论文的研究内容13-15
第2章 有障板条件下矢量声场分布研究15-42
    2.1 引言15
    2.2 圆柱体障板散射声压场和质点振速场15-26
        2.2.1 圆柱体障板散射声场概述15-16
        2.2.2 刚硬无限长圆柱的散射声场16-17
        2.2.3 绝对软无限长圆柱的散射声场17-18
        2.2.4 仿真研究18-26
    2.3 球形障板散射声压场和质点振速场26-35
        2.3.1 球体散射声场概述26-27
        2.3.2 刚硬球体的散射声场27
        2.3.3 绝对软球体的散射声场27-28
        2.3.4 仿真研究28-35
    2.4 利用MATLAB 中PDE 工具箱计算散射声场35-41
        2.4.1 方程36
        2.4.2 边界条件36-37
        2.4.3 算例37-41
    2.5 本章小结41-42
第3章 有障板条件下矢量信号处理42-64
    3.1 引言42
    3.2 矢量线阵常规窄带波束形成及其性能分析42-43
    3.3 矢量线阵MVDR 波束形成43-44
    3.4 矢量线阵MUSIC 高分辨空间谱估计44-45
    3.5 障板对阵列性能的影响研究45-63
        3.5.1 球型软障板对阵列性能的影响45-50
        3.5.2 无限大平面障板对矢量水听器性能的影响50-63
    3.6 本章小结63-64
第4章 有障板条件下矢量声场测量试验研究64-76
    4.1 障板散射声场的测量试验64-66
        4.1.1 试验障板模型64-65
        4.1.2 试验概况65-66
    4.2 试验测量与试验数据处理66-75
        4.2.1 平面障板对矢量水听器接收指向性的影响68-71
        4.2.2 圆柱体障板声场测量71-72
        4.2.3 障板对矢量水听器阵列的性能影响72-75
    4.3 本章小结75-76
结论76-77
参考文献77-81
攻读硕士学位期间发表的论文和取得的科研成果81-82
致谢82-83
附录83
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