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瓦罐鸡汤工艺优化、品质形成及储藏研究

Study on Processing Optimizing, Quality Forming and Storage of Crock Chicken Suop

作者: 专业:食品科学 导师:黄文 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

Crock Chicken Soup, processing optimization, quality forming, high pressure heating, storage quality, volatile composition

        本文以瓦罐鸡汤的工业化生产为目的,对瓦罐鸡汤的加工工艺进行了优化,并对优化工艺后的瓦罐鸡汤与传统工艺瓦罐鸡汤的品质形成进行了比较研究。同时对罐装、高压加热鸡汤的营养、滋味、储藏及其与优化工艺瓦罐鸡汤的挥发性风味成分进行了比较。具体结果如下:1.以加热时间、加盐量、肉水比例及土鸡肉鸡质量比为四因素,根据Box-Benhnken的中心组合实验设计原理并以感官评定值、可溶性蛋白含量、游离氨基酸含量、核苷酸含量和总可溶性糖含量为考察指标,设计响应面优化试验。各考察指标得到的五个不同最佳优化工艺条件,且各个优化试验方差分析结果显示:各模型显著,回归方程能很好反应各因素与响应值之间的关系,同时验证实验结果与预测值之间相差较近。最后以感官风味指标为主要指标,结合其他各指标确定瓦罐鸡汤最佳制作工艺条件,并通过验证实验验证该工艺条件下瓦罐鸡汤感官风味较好,其他指标也与各指标最佳工艺条件条件下的值相差较小。该最佳工艺条件为:加热时间105min、加盐量2%、水肉比2.5、肉鸡土鸡质量比1:1。并将此工艺条件下的瓦罐鸡汤作为工业化生产的参考标准。2.瓦罐鸡汤品质在加热过程中的变化研究。瓦罐鸡汤的香味在较短的加热时间内迅速产生,传统瓦罐鸡汤和优化工艺后瓦罐鸡汤在前20min内,香气达到较大值,在随后较长时间的加热过程中变化幅度较小。两种工艺瓦罐鸡汤的滋味分别在60min和80min时间点有一个突增的变化趋势,而鸡肉口感突增点在40min和60min时间点。说明香味达到较大值所需时间较短,而滋味和鸡肉口感需要较长时间才能达理想值。同时,通过对两种工艺瓦罐鸡汤品质、营养和滋味成分变化趋势的研究发现:鸡汤pH在加热过程中变化幅度不大,总可溶性蛋白、总可溶性氮含量和胶原蛋白含量处于缓慢增加趋势,而可溶性糖、游离氨基酸和核苷酸含量则表现出先增加后减少再增加的变化趋势。两种工艺鸡汤品质、营养成分和滋味成分变化趋势相近,说明原料对瓦罐鸡汤的品质形成过程影响不大。3.罐装高压加热鸡汤研究。以肉类工业化生产最为常见的加工模式为考察对象,比较了不同加压时间罐装鸡汤的感官风味、营养成分及滋味成分发现:加压时间与鸡汤的感官风味存在负相关性。加压时间为15min的鸡汤感官风味最好。同时随着加压时间的延长,鸡汤可溶性蛋白含量和总可溶性氮含量表现出先增加后减少的趋势,而游离氨基酸含量、可溶性糖含量和核苷酸含量的变化趋势不规律。与瓦罐鸡汤相比,高压鸡汤可溶性蛋白质含量、总可溶性氮含量和可溶性糖含量与瓦罐鸡汤相差较多,特别是可溶性糖含量仅为瓦罐鸡汤的约1/10。核苷酸含量略微较少,而游离氨基酸含量与瓦罐鸡汤相近。4.高压鸡汤的储藏性能研究。为考察采用罐装方式保藏鸡汤的可行性,分析了该保藏方式下鸡汤在储藏过程中的品质变化。结果显示加压时间显著影响罐装鸡汤的储藏性能,在37℃恒温条件下储藏,鸡汤感官品质随着储藏时间的延长而逐渐下降,且长时间加压对鸡汤在储藏过程中感官风味的稳定有利。同时不同加压时间对鸡汤营养成分、滋味成分及TBA值在储藏过程中的变化产生较大影响。其中谷氨酸的含量在储藏前两个星期急剧下降,游离氨基酸总量则在增加;可溶性蛋白在储藏过程中总的来说是缓慢增加的。总体来说可以实现较长时间的储藏。5.高压加热鸡汤和瓦罐鸡汤挥发性风味物质研究。通过SPME-GC-MS对改进工艺瓦罐鸡汤和感官风味最好的加压时间为15min的高压加热鸡汤的挥发性风味物质进行定性定量分析。结果显示:瓦罐鸡汤中共检测出101种挥发性物质,而高压鸡汤中则检测到48种,差异显著。其中共有16种挥发性物质在两种鸡汤中都存在。
    In this paper, the processing of Crock Chicken Soup was optimized.Then the forming process of optimized and traditional of Crock Chicken Soup, nutrients, taste substance, flavor substances and storage quality of high-pressure heated potted chicken soup were tested and were compared with optimized Crock Chicken Soup. The results are as follows:1. On the base of Assembled-Center of Box-Benhnken, a Response Surface Optimization Experiment was designed. Diffenrent optimized processing were obtaine when organoleptic investigation, contents of soluble protein, free amino acid, soluble sugar and nucletides were tested. Correlations of each Response Surface Optimization Experiment between factors and response value are reflected well by Regression equations, and results of validation were match to predictions. The financial best processing conditions selected are:heating time 105 min, ratio between water and chicken is2.5, ratio between "fast-raised"chicken and "farm-raised"chicken is 1:1, contents of salt is 2%.2. Studies on forming process of Crock Chicken Soup. Flavor substances increased dramatically in a short heating time, fragrance of both optimized and traditional Crock Chicken Soup reached to a ideal value before it’s range of variation became smaller during the subsequently heating time. Taste of the two kind of chicken soup rised dramatically when the heating time last to 60min and 80min respectively, and those of chicken’s mouthfeel are 40min and 60min respectively. The results showed that fragrance of chicken suop may reach to a ideal value in a short heating time, but taste and chicken’s mouthfeel need a longer time.By comparing the quality, nutrients and taste substance of both kinds of chicken soups, it can be speculated that:pH of ckicken soup changinged little during the heating time, contents of soluble protein and total soluble nitrogen increased slowly, contents of soluble sugar, free amino acid and nucletide have the same changing trend:increased, reduced then increased again. Changing trents of quality nutrients and taste substances in both Crock Chicken Soup during heating time showed that different materials have little influnce on quality of Crock Chicken Soup. 3. Studies on high-pressure heated potted chicken soup. The influces of different heating time on sensory flavor, nutrients and taste substance were comparied, the results showed that:there was a negative correlation pressure time and sensory flavor of chicken soup. The contents of soluble protein and total soluble nitrogen in chicken soup reduced after the first increase, but the changing trend of contents of free amino acid, soluble sugar and nucleotide were ruleless. The contents of soluble protein, total soluble nitrogen and soluble sugar are much litter compared to those of Crock Chicken Soup.But content of free amino acid of both chicken soup is almost same.4. Studies on storage quality of high-pressure heated potted chicken soup. Pressure time have a dramatically influnce on storage quality of high-pressure heated potted chicken soup. Under condition of 37℃, the quality of chicken soup getting worse slowly, and longer pressure time is better to quality of chicken during storing. Pressure time also have a dramatically influnce on nutrients, taste substance and TBA of chicken soup during storing. Content of Glutamic Acid reduced dramatically at the fist two weeks of storage, but that of free amoni acid increased. Content of soluble protein increased slowly during the total storing time.5. Studies on volatile substances in Crock Chicken Soup and high-pressure heated potted chicken soup. The volatile substances in high-pressure heated potted chicken soup, which was considered to be the best when the pressure time is 15min, and Crock Chicken Soup, the processing had been optimized, were tested by SPME-GC-MS,101 kinds of volatile substances were detected in Crock Chicken Soup, while 48 in high-pressure heated potted chicken soup. The difference of total volatile substances is significant. And 16 compounds were detected in both kinds of chicken.
        

瓦罐鸡汤工艺优化、品质形成及储藏研究

摘要7-9
ABSTRACT9-10
1 文献综述11-29
    1.1 引言11-14
    1.2 风味概述14-19
        1.2.1 滋味15-16
        1.2.2 香味16-19
    1.3 鸡肉滋味概述19-22
        1.3.1 肉滋味19-21
        1.3.2 鸡肉滋味21-22
    1.4 鸡肉香味概述22-28
        1.4.1 肉香味22-26
        1.4.2 鸡肉香味26-28
    1.5 选题的目的和意义28-29
2 材料与方法29-36
    2.1 材料29-30
        2.1.1 原料29
        2.1.2 主要试剂29-30
    2.2 主要仪器30
    2.3 方法30-36
        2.3.1 鸡汤加工工艺30-31
        2.3.2 原料理化指标31
        2.3.3 工艺优化31-32
        2.3.4 鸡汤品质在热过程中的变化32
        2.3.5 高压鸡汤及其在储藏过程中的变化32-33
        2.3.6 测定方法33-34
        2.3.7 高压鸡汤和瓦罐鸡汤挥发性成分分析34-35
        2.3.8 数据处理35-36
3 结果与分析36-71
    3.1 原料鸡肉肉品质比较结果36-37
        3.1.1 原料基本品质测定结果36
        3.1.2 原料基本理化指标测定结果36-37
    3.2 瓦罐鸡汤工艺优化结果37-50
        3.2.1 以感官评定值为考察指标的响应面分析结果37-44
        3.2.2 以游离氨基酸含量为指标的响应面分析结果44-46
        3.2.3 以总可溶性蛋白含量为指标的响应面分析结果46-47
        3.2.4 以核苷酸(I+G)含量为指标的响应面分析结果47-48
        3.2.5 以总可溶性糖含量为指标的响应面分析结果48-49
        3.2.6 最优工艺结果49-50
    3.3 鸡汤品质在加热过程中的变化50-56
        3.3.1 瓦罐鸡汤感官风味变化趋势50-51
        3.3.2 瓦罐鸡汤pH值变化趋势51-52
        3.3.3 瓦罐鸡汤游离氨基酸含量的变化趋势52
        3.3.4 瓦罐鸡汤总可溶性蛋白的变化趋势52-53
        3.3.5 瓦罐鸡汤总可溶性氮含量变化趋势53-54
        3.3.6 瓦罐鸡汤总可溶性糖含量变化趋势54
        3.3.7 瓦罐鸡汤核苷酸(I+G)含量的变化趋势54-55
        3.3.8 瓦罐鸡汤胶原蛋白含量的变化趋势55-56
    3.4 加压时间对鸡汤品质的影响56-58
        3.4.1 加压时间对鸡汤感官风味的影响56
        3.4.2 加压时间对鸡汤营养及滋味成分的影响56-58
    3.5 加压时间对鸡汤储藏性能的影响58-63
        3.5.1 加压时间对鸡汤感官风味在储藏过程中的影响58-59
        3.5.2 加压时间对鸡汤游离氨基酸在储藏过程中的影响59
        3.5.3 加压时间对可溶性蛋白在储藏过程中的影响59-60
        3.5.4 加压时间对可溶性糖在储藏过程中的影响60-61
        3.5.5 加压时间对核苷酸(I+G)在储藏过程中的影响61
        3.5.6 加压时间对谷氨酸在储藏过程中的影响61-62
        3.5.7 加压时间对鸡汤TBA值的才储藏过程中影响62-63
    3.6 瓦罐鸡汤和高压鸡汤挥发性风味物质分析结果63-71
        3.6.1 瓦罐鸡汤中挥发性成分69-70
        3.6.2 高压鸡汤中挥发性成分70-71
4 讨论71-83
    4.1 鸡汤在加热过程中的pH值71
    4.2 鸡汤在加热过程中游离氨基酸含量变化71-72
    4.3 鸡汤中可溶性蛋白在加热过程中的变化72
    4.4 鸡汤中的胶原蛋白72-73
    4.5 高压对鸡汤品质的影响73
    4.6 鸡汤中挥发性风味物质73-83
        4.6.1 烃类物质73-74
        4.6.2 醛类物质74-76
        4.6.3 酮类物质76-77
        4.6.4 酸类物质77-78
        4.6.5 酯类物质78-79
        4.6.6 醇类物质79-80
        4.6.7 杂环类化合物80-82
        4.6.8 其他类物质82-83
结论83-85
参考文献85-93
致谢93-94
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