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粒子冲击破岩试验装置的研制与试验研究

Develop of Test Equipment Used in Particle Impact Rock Fracturing And Experimental Investigation

作者: 专业:机械工程 导师:任福深 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 东北石油大学

Keywords

particle impact, testing apparatus, experimental investigation

        随着时间的推移,在我国浅层的油气资源已经开发殆尽,但是在深部硬地层中还存在着较多的油气资源,然而就目前传统的钻井技术而言,普通的钻井方法往往不能起到令人满意的钻进效果,其较低的破岩效率直接影响着钻井工程的经济效益,这种情况严重制约了深部油气资源的开发,因此研制一种应对深部硬地层的有效的钻进方法就显得尤为重要。粒子冲击钻井是一种新型的钻井方法,它以粒子冲击破岩为主以机械破岩为辅,其对坚硬岩层有很强的破碎能力。粒子冲击钻井设备具有较强的灵活性,在对较浅或较软地层进行钻进时,可以使用传统的钻进方法进行钻进,当钻进时遇到较硬地层时可以将粒子冲击钻井装置加装到传统的钻机上,通过此设备向钻井液中持续、稳定地注入钢制粒子,并由钻井液输送到井底对坚硬的岩石进行破碎,达到较传统钻进方法更高的钻进速度,实现更好的经济效益。本文在充分调研和分析国内外粒子冲击破岩理论与实践的基础上,提出并研制了一套粒子冲击破岩试验装置,该装置可以实现粒子持续稳定的注入,并能对影响粒子冲击破岩效率的相关参数进行试验。应用Fluent软件建立系统的仿真模型,并对其进行了动态仿真分析。最后,基于粒子冲击试验装置进行了多项试验,发现多种因素对破岩效率影响的规律,为粒子冲击破岩技术的应用提供了技术支持与理论指导。
    As time goes on,oil and gas resources have been nearly exhausted in shallow strata, however, there is much resources in hard and deep formation, because of the drilling technology, the effect of drilling with traditional drilling method is not satisfying,low efficiency of breaking rock has a great influence on economic benefit,and exploitation of gas and oil has been seriously constrained,so designing a new kind of drilling method used in drilling hard formation is very necessary.Particle impact drilling(PID) is a new kind of drilling method, using high-speed spherical carbide steel particles to break rock and mechanical breaking as a supplement,breaking ability has a greatly improvement.There is more flexibility in particle impact drilling equipment,we can use traditional drilling method to exploit gas and oil in softer formation,and we add particle impact drilling equipment to traditional drilling machine in hard formation, traditional drilling machine can breaks deep and hard rock through injecting particles into drilling fluid continuously and steadily, particle can reaches a faster rate of penetration and a better economic benefit than traditional drilling method in this way.This paper puts forward and design an experimental equipment used in particle impact drilling which based on the full investigation and analysis of the theory and practice of particle impact drilling at home and abroad. This equipment can inject particles into drilling fluid continuously and steadily, and conduct experiment with the relevant parameters that can have an effect on the efficiency of breaking rock.Establish the simulation model of equipment and then dynamically simulated with FLUENT. Finally,we conduct a series of experiments,find that some factors,such as pressure and volume fraction of particle,how to affect the efficiency of breaking rock,and then provide technical assistance and theoretical guidance to the application of particle impact drilling.
        

粒子冲击破岩试验装置的研制与试验研究

摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5
创新点摘要6-9
第一章 绪论9-16
    1.1 课题研究背景与意义9
    1.2 高效破岩技术方法现状9-10
    1.3 国内外粒子冲击破岩技术发展现状10-15
        1.3.1 粒子冲击破岩国外研究现状10-13
        1.3.2 粒子冲击破岩国内研究现状13-15
    1.4 本文主要研究内容15-16
第二章 试验装置总体方案与参数设计16-22
    2.1 粒子冲击破岩试验装置的结构与工作原理16-18
    2.2 粒子冲击破岩试验装置各关键系统的功能18-20
    2.3 总体参数设计20-21
    2.4 本章小结21-22
第三章 粒子冲击破岩试验装置数值模拟22-31
    3.1 几何模型的建立与网格的生成22-23
        3.1.1 几何模型的建立22
        3.1.2 网格的生成22-23
    3.2 模型计算设置23-24
    3.3 两相混合数值模拟与结果分析24-28
        3.3.1 压力场分布25-27
        3.3.2 钻井液流速对出.体积分数的影响27-28
    3.4 螺旋注入机构数值模拟与数值分析28-30
        3.4.1 螺杆转子静止与非静止时粒子体积分数的变化29
        3.4.2 螺杆转速对出.粒子体积分数的影响29-30
    3.5 本章小结30-31
第四章 粒子冲击破岩试验装置的研制31-55
    4.1 粒子冲击破岩试验装置关键部分的研制31-43
        4.1.1 模拟顶驱及模拟井底的研制31-38
        4.1.2 粒子高压注入装置38-42
        4.1.3 循环水箱的研制42-43
    4.2 电控系统设计43-52
        4.2.1 自吸泵的控制45-46
        4.2.2 潜水泵的控制46-47
        4.2.3 模拟顶驱顶部旋转控制47-48
        4.2.4 模拟顶驱起升电机的控制48-52
        4.2.5 粒子注入装置驱动电机控制52
    4.3 安全保护系统设计52-53
    4.4 钻压信号的采集53-54
    4.5 本章小结54-55
第五章 粒子射流冲击破岩试验与分析55-68
    5.1 试验设备与试验材料55-56
        5.1.1 试验装置与设备55-56
        5.1.2 试验材料56
    5.2 粒子冲击破岩试验研究56-66
        5.2.1 粒子直径对破岩效率影响试验研究57-60
        5.2.2 恒钻压情况下两种破岩方式钻进对比试验60-62
        5.2.3 恒钻速情况下两种破岩方式钻进对比试验62-64
        5.2.4 不同粒子体积分数下破岩效果对比试验64-66
    5.3 数值模拟结果的验证66-67
    5.4 本章小结67-68
结论68-69
参考文献69-73
发表文章目录73-74
致谢74-75
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