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基于LCD和MSE的往复压缩机故障诊断方法研究

A Research on Reciprocating Compressor Fault Diagnosis Method Based on LCD And MSE

作者: 专业:机械工程(专业学位) 导师:杨敬源 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 东北石油大学

Keywords

reciprocating compressor, fault diagnosis, LCD, Hermite interpolation, multiscale entropy

        往复压缩机是用于压缩和输送气体的机械设备,已成为石油化工领域必不可少的关键设备,随着社会对安全生产重视程度的日益提高,对其实施故障诊断已势在必行。然而,往复压缩机结构复杂,激励源众多,其故障诊断过程仍存在诸多问题亟待深入研究。本文以往复压缩机振动信号为信息源,针对信号所具有的非线性、强非平稳特性,进行基于局部特征尺度分解(LCD)和多尺度熵(MSE)的特征提取方法研究。首先,在对往复压缩机常见故障形式进行调研以及故障机理进行深入分析的基础上,确定以往复压缩机气缸与传动机构部位的常见故障为研究对象,以振动信号分析为手段,开展其故障诊断方法研究。以2D12型往复压缩机为具体实验对象,进行故障模拟实验并测试状态数据,为故障诊断过程实施奠定了基础。其次,针对往复压缩机振动信号的非平稳特性,使用LCD时频分析方法对振动信号进行自适应分解,突出了状态信息。并针对LCD方法在分解强非平稳信号时,基线出现的波形毛刺失真现象,提出了以三次Hermite插值代替线性变换的基线构造方法,对LCD进行了改进。通过对仿真信号和实测信号的对比分析,验证了该方法的有效性。再者,针对往复压缩机振动信号的非线性特性,提出了基于LCD和MSE的故障特征提取方法。利用相关系数法筛选了LCD分解结果中包含主要状态信息的ISC分量,采用MSE对ISC分量进行了复杂性定量描述,并以奇异值分解方法提取了状态特征矩阵的特征值,作为最终的状态特征向量。最后,以往复压缩机的气缸与传动机构部位的常见故障形式为对象,利用基于LCD和MSE的故障特征提取方法实现了状态特征的有效提取,并以支持向量机(SVM)为模式识别器,实现了故障的准确诊断,通过与多种特征提取方法对别,验证了本文方法的优越性。
    Reciprocating compressor is an essential power equipment to compress and transport gas and used widely in petroleum and chemical industry. With the increasing emphasis on production safety in present society, it is necessary to implement fault diagnosis technique for reciprocating compressor. Owing to the complex structure and numerous excitation sources, it is necessary to conduct further investigation of the fault diagnosis technique for reciprocating compressor. In view of the reciprocating compressor vibration signals with nonlinear,non-stationary characteristics, this article proposes a method based on the local characteristic scale decomposition(LCD) and multiscale entropy(MSE) for fault diagnosis of reciprocating compressor.First of all, based on the basic structure, the reciprocating compressor working principle,and a brief overview of the reciprocating compressor fault diagnosis technology, the common faults of cylinder and transmission parts was taken as the study objects, and their fault mechanism are summarized. The experimental research and data collection of 2D12 type reciprocating compressor was conducted.Secondly, according to the non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals of reciprocating compressors, an adaptive time-frequency analysis method-LCD was introduced.For LCD method adopts linear transformation, the phenomenon of the waveform distortion in the baseline signal occurs, and an improved method was put forward by using the Hermite interpolation instead of the linear transformation. Through the analysis of the simulation signal and measured signal, the proposed method was verified.Thirdly, according to the nonlinear characteristics of vibration signals of reciprocating compressors, the method based on LCD and MSE is proposed for reciprocating compressor fault diagnosis. The ISC components of LCD decomposition results which contain the main information was chosen by using the correlation coefficient, then the MSE was used to describe characteristics of ISC components. The eigenvalues of state feature matrix was extracted by singular value decomposition as the final eigenvectors.Finally, the eigenvectors of faults was extracted by the proposed method. Taken SVM as pattern classifier, the eigenvectors of faults were diagnosed, and superiority of this method is verified by comparing the recognition results of other methods.
        

基于LCD和MSE的往复压缩机故障诊断方法研究

摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5
创新点摘要6-9
第一章 绪论9-14
    1.1 课题背景与研究意义9
    1.2 课题相关内容国内外研究概况9-12
        1.2.1 往复压缩机故障诊断技术研究现状9-10
        1.2.2 非平稳信号自适应时频分解方法研究现状10-12
        1.2.3 非线性信号定量描述方法研究现状12
    1.3 论文组织结构及研究内容12-14
        1.3.1 论文组织结构12-13
        1.3.2 论文主要研究内容13-14
第二章 往复压缩机故障分析及实验研究14-27
    2.1 往复压缩机结构及工作原理14-15
        2.1.1 往复压缩机的结构14
        2.1.2 往复压缩机的工作原理14-15
    2.2 往复压缩机常见故障及机理分析15-19
        2.2.1 气阀故障16-17
        2.2.2 气缸故障17
        2.2.3 活塞组件故障17
        2.2.4 传动部件故障17
        2.2.5 填料函组件故障17-18
        2.2.6 振动机理分析18-19
    2.3 往复压缩机振动信号特性19-20
    2.4 往复压缩机故障实验研究20-26
        2.4.1 2D12型往复式压缩机的主要参数和基本结构20
        2.4.2 2D12型往复式压缩机常见故障20-21
        2.4.3 往复式压缩机数据采集21-26
    2.5 本章小结26-27
第三章 局部特征尺度分解方法27-42
    3.1 局部特征尺度分解(LCD)方法27-32
        3.1.1 内禀尺度分量(ISC)27-29
        3.1.2 LCD方法的基本理论29-32
    3.2 三次Hermite插值32-33
    3.3 基于三次Hermite插值的局部特征尺度分解方法(HLCD)33
    3.4 仿真分析33-38
    3.5 实测数据分析38-41
    3.6 本章小结41-42
第四章 基于LCD与MSE的往复压缩机故障诊断方法研究42-55
    4.1 样本熵42-43
    4.2 多尺度熵43-44
    4.3 特征提取方法44-46
        4.3.1 问题的提出44
        4.3.2 ISC分量的选择44-45
        4.3.3 算法和流程45-46
    4.4 往复压缩机故障诊断应用46-54
        4.4.1 往复压缩机气阀故障分析46-49
        4.4.2 往复压缩机轴承故障分析49-52
        4.4.3 往复压缩机故障识别与比较52-54
    4.5 本章小结54-55
结论55-56
参考文献56-60
致谢60-61
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