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磨料射流旋转驱动与切割机理研究

Research of Abrasive Jet Rotating Driving And Cutting Principle

作者: 专业:机械工程(专业学位) 导师:李治淼 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 东北石油大学

Keywords

abrasive jet, cutting, jet reaction, double eccentric

        石油修井作业中的小直径管柱切割方法有爆炸切割、机械切割、射流切割,清洁、可靠、高效的射流切割技术具有推广价值。国内的小直径管柱射流切割工具尚不成熟,进行小井眼内管柱旋转、切割机理研究及切割工具设计,具有理论价值和工程意义。首先,假设磨料粒子为球形,建立单一粒子高速撞击管柱内壁的力学模型,推导出最大剪应力公式,进行了磨料射流切割机理研究;应用ANSYS力学分析软件对O型密封圈的旋转摩阻进行数值模拟研究,依据不同压力、不同密封圈组合的计算结果拟合出阻力矩公式,结合射流动力矩公式进行了旋转机理研究,为磨料射流切割工具的设计提供了理论依据。其次,进行了不同参数下的磨料射流实验研究,结果表明:磨料射流切割深度随着射流速度、磨料质量浓度、切割时间的增大而增大,随着靶距的增大而减小,随着磨料粒径的增大而先增大后减小,最优粒径为40-70目;塑性材料的硬度越高,抗冲蚀性能越强。设计了射流旋转工具,进行了射流旋转实验,为切割工具的工艺参数选择提供了参考。最后,以小直径管柱为切割对象,以射流反作用力作为动力源,设计出具有自旋转功能、控速功能及转速监测功能的双偏心磨料射流切割工具。经实验表明,工具自旋转性能良好,实现了低转速高射速平稳旋转的设计要求,为小直径管柱射流切割作业提供了可靠的技术支持。
    The small diameter pipe cutting method in oil work over operations includes the methods of explosive cutting, mechanical cutting and jet cutting. Clean, reliable and efficient jet cutting technique has the value to be popularized. The small diameter tube jet cutting tools in China is not mature. It has the theoretical value and engineering significance to research the string rotation in slim hole, cutting mechanism and the design of cutting tools.Firstly, suppose the abrasive particle is spherical and creating the mechanistic model-- a single high-velocity particle impacts the inner wall of the tubing string is to deduce the formula of maximum shearing stress and studied the mechanism of abrasive jet cutting. I research rotating friction of the type O sealing ring by mechanical analysis software, ANSYS. According to the calculation results from the pressure of different levels and different seal combination, formula is combined with torque equation for the rotating mechanism research. Above is to provide the theory basis of the abrasive jet cutting tool design.Secondly, I have researched the abrasive jet experiment under different parameters. The results show that: Abrasive jet cutting depth aggrandizes with the following elements-- the increase of jet speed, abrasive concentration and cutting time and abrasive jet cutting depth decreases with the target distance, and with the increase of abrasive particle size, abrasive jet cutting depth will first increase and then decrease. The optimal size is 40-70 mesh. The higher hardness of Plastic material is, the better erosion resistance is. The jet spinning tools have been designed and jet spinning experiment has been carried out, which provides reference for the process parameters selection of cutting tools.Finally, the cutting object is the little diameter string and the jet reaction is functioned as power supply. The double eccentric abrasive jet cutting tool is designed with the functions of automatic rotation, controlling the speed, and speed monitoring. The results show that the tool has a good performance to spin itself. The demand of the speed in designing which turns slowly and jets quickly has come true. And it provides reliable technical support for work of cutting the little diameter string’s jet.
        

磨料射流旋转驱动与切割机理研究

摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5
创新点摘要6-10
第一章 绪论10-16
    1.1 研究目的及意义10
    1.2 国内外研究现状10-15
        1.2.1 磨料射流切割性能10-11
        1.2.2 井下工具旋转驱动方式11-15
    1.3 本文研究的主要内容15-16
第二章 切割工具切割机理及自旋转驱动分析16-27
    2.1 切割机理研究16-21
        2.1.1 磨料射流切割金属材料的机理16
        2.1.2 磨料射流切割井下管柱的力学模型16-21
    2.2 切割工具旋转驱动分析21-26
        2.2.1 动力矩计算21-22
        2.2.2 阻力矩计算22-26
    2.3 小结26-27
第三章 磨料射流模拟实验研究27-42
    3.1 实验目的27
    3.2 实验设备及耗材27-29
        3.2.1 实验设备27-28
        3.2.2 实验耗材28-29
    3.3 实验方案29-30
    3.4 实验结果与分析30-41
        3.4.1 射流速度的影响30-33
        3.4.2 靶距的影响33-34
        3.4.3 持续时间的影响34-36
        3.4.4 磨料质量浓度的影响36-39
        3.4.5 磨料粒径的影响39-40
        3.4.6 不同靶材的影响40-41
    3.5 小结41-42
第四章 射流工具旋转实验研究42-49
    4.1 实验工具设计42-45
        4.1.1 自旋转喷头设计42
        4.1.2 限速装置设计42-45
        4.1.3 压动装置设计45
    4.2 射流工具旋转实验45-48
        4.2.1 实验方案45-46
        4.2.2 实验数据分析46-48
    4.3 小结48-49
第五章 双偏心磨料射流切割工具设计49-59
    5.1 工具设计49-52
        5.1.1 整体设计49
        5.1.2 偏心喷头设计49-50
        5.1.3 偏心喷嘴设计50-51
        5.1.4 主心轴设计51
        5.1.5 限速摩擦环设计51-52
        5.1.6 外壳设计52
    5.2 设计校核52-58
        5.2.1 外壳体校核52-54
        5.2.2 压动外壳体校核54-55
        5.2.3 主心轴校核55-56
        5.2.4 螺纹校核56-58
    5.3 小结58-59
第六章 双偏心磨料射流切割工具静压及旋转实验59-67
    6.1 静压摩阻测试实验59-63
        6.1.1 实验目的59
        6.1.2 实验工具59
        6.1.3 实验方案59-60
        6.1.4 实验结果与分析60-63
    6.2 切割工具转速测试实验63-66
        6.2.1 实验目的63
        6.2.2 实验工具63
        6.2.3 实验方案63-64
        6.2.4 实验结果与分析64-66
    6.3 小结66-67
结论67-68
参考文献68-71
发表文章目录71-72
致谢72-73
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