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小麦骨干亲本碧蚂4号及其姊妹系遗传差异分析

Genetic Differentiation Analysis on the Wheat Backbone Parent Bima No.4 and Its Four Sib-lines

作者: 专业:遗传学 导师:王洪刚 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 山东农业大学

Keywords

Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Bima No.4, Backbone parent, Sib-lines, Genetic differentiation analysis

        碧蚂4号是我国优异的小麦骨干亲本之一,它综合性状优良,遗传基础丰富,以其为亲本选育的衍生品种已达到68个。为了揭示碧蚂4号成为骨干亲本的遗传学基础,深入开展小麦骨干亲本的研究与利用,并为骨干亲本的定向创制提供依据,本研究以碧蚂4号及其4个姊妹系品种碧蚂1号、碧蚂2号、碧蚂5号和碧蚂6号为材料,利用SSR、EST-SSR和STS三种分子标记对其在基因组水平上进行了分析,比较其基因组结构特点,获得以下结果:1.主要农艺性状比较结果表明,在千粒重性状上,碧蚂1号和碧蚂4号继承了其亲本碧玉麦千粒重高的优良特点,碧蚂4号比碧蚂1号千粒重略高,但都明显高于其他姊妹系。5个姊妹系品种都继承了蚂蚱麦穗粒数较多的优点。2.总体上蚂蚱麦对5个姊妹系品种的遗传贡献率高于碧玉麦。其中碧蚂1号和碧蚂2号比其他姊妹系更多的继承了蚂蚱麦的遗传成分,分别为47.9%和47.7%;碧蚂2号和碧蚂4号比其他姊妹系更多的继承了碧玉麦的遗传成分,分别为41.1%和39.5%,碧蚂5号中来自碧玉麦的遗传物质最少,为32.4%。3.从遗传相似系数可以看出,碧蚂4号与其4个姊妹系的遗传差异较大,其中与碧蚂2号的遗传差异最小,平均遗传相似系数为0.823,其次为碧蚂1号和碧蚂5号,平均遗传相似系数分别为0.799和0.786;而与碧蚂6号的遗传差异最大,平均遗传相似系数为0.779。4.在碧蚂4号中检测到188个特异位点,其特异位点的来源有三个:即35.1%的位点来源于亲本碧玉麦,50.5%的位点来源于亲本蚂蚱麦,14.4%的位点是碧蚂4号的等位变异位点。在碧蚂4号的部分染色体上,有些特异位点遗传距离很近,构成了标记位点较密集的特异染色体区段,如Xmwg60-1A-Xwmc329、BARC101-2BL-Xwmc501、Xgwm570-6AL-Xpsp3152、Xmag794-7AL- Xmag4044等染色体区段。根据小麦基因组上已定位的与重要农艺性状相关的基因和QTL位点信息,发现碧蚂4号特异位点/区段上富集了许多与产量、适应性和品质等重要农艺性状相关的基因和QTL。可能是使碧蚂4号在杂种后代中被优先选择,并且成为骨干亲本的遗传基础。
    Bima No.4 which had the characteristics of excellent comprehensive properties and abundant genetic foundation, was one of the most excellent backbone parents in China. And it had produced sixty-eight derivatives. In order to reveal genetic foundation of how Bima No.4 could become backbone parents and explore the evolution law of backbone parents, which would offer us the theoretical basis for finding new backbone parents in future. We analyzed the genetic differention between Bima No.4 and its four sib-lines by employing three molecular markers, SSR, EST-SSR, and STS, to compare the characteristics of their genome structure. Main results were as follows:1. Comparing main agronomic traits among Bima No.4 and its four sib-lines, it was showed that Bima No.1 and Bima No.4 were all inherited high 1000-grain weight from Quality, and the 1000-grain weight of Bima No.4 was higher than Bima No.1, but their 1000-grain weight were both higher than other sib-lines. The five sib-lines variety were all inherited high grain number from Mazha mai.2. As a whole, genetic contribution rate of Mazha was higher than that of Quality in the five sib-lines. Bima No.1 and Bima No.2 inherited more genetic component from Mazha, the percent were 47.9% and 47.7% respectively. Bima No.4 inherited less genetic component from Mazha, the percent was 43.6%. Bima No.2 and Bima No.4 inherited more genetic component from Quality, the percent were 41.1%and 39.5%. Bima No.5 inherited less genetic component from Quality, the percent was 32.4%.3. The genetic similarity coefficient indicated that the genetic differentiation between Bima No.4 and its four sib-lines was high. Bima No.4 had the lowest genetic differentiation with Bima No.2 and the average genetic similarity coefficient was 0.823. And then were Bima No.1 and Bima No.5, the average genetic similarity coefficients were 0.799 and 0.786 respectively . Bima No.4 had the biggest genetic differentiation with Bima No.6 and the average genetic similarity coefficient was 0.779.4. The 188 special loci between Bima No.4 and its four sib-lines were found. There were three source for the specific loci, 35.1% of them derived from Mazha, 50.5% of them derived from Quality, 14.4% of them were allelic variation of Bima No.4. Partial specific loci were quite close and defense on chromosome, which formed specific regions of Bima No.4, such as Xmwg60-1A-Xwmc329,BARC101-2BL-Xwmc501,Xgwm570-6AL-Xpsp3152,Xmag794-7AL- Xmag4044. According to genes and QTL loci which were localized on wheat genomes, it was found that most specific loci / regions of Bima No.4 were genes and QTL loci associated with agronomic traits such as yield, disease resistance, adverce resistance and adaptability were located, which might be the genetic basis distinguished Bima No.4 from its four sib-lines and became the backbone parent.
        

小麦骨干亲本碧蚂4号及其姊妹系遗传差异分析

中文摘要7-9
ABSTRACT9-10
1 前言11-28
    1.1 小麦骨干亲本及其育种价值11-14
    1.2 小麦骨干亲本研究的现状14-18
        1.2.1 骨干亲本重要基因组区段及其在衍生后代中的传递14-16
        1.2.2 骨干亲本的QTL 定位16-17
        1.2.3 骨干亲本的遗传多样性研究17-18
    1.3 分子标记及其在小麦遗传研究中的应用18-25
        1.3.1 分子标记的类型18-22
        1.3.2 分子标记在小麦遗传研究中的应用22-25
    1.4 小麦骨干亲本碧蚂4 号及其姊妹系的特点与利用25-27
    1.5 本研究的目的意义27-28
2 试验材料和方法28-34
    2.1 试验材料28
    2.2 试验设计28-29
    2.3 试验地点29
    2.4 试验方法29-34
        2.4.1 农艺性状调查29
        2.4.2 基因组DNA 的提取29-30
        2.4.3 DNA 分子标记分析30-33
        2.4.4 数据分析33-34
3 结果与分析34-53
    3.1 农艺性状特点34-37
    3.2 多态性分子标记的筛选37-40
        3.2.1 EST-SSR 引物的缺体-四体定位37-39
        3.2.2 碧蚂4 号及其姊妹系的多态性分析39-40
    3.3 亲本对碧蚂4 号及其姊妹系的遗传贡献率40-43
    3.4 碧蚂4 号与其4 个姊妹系的遗传差异43-44
    3.5 碧蚂4 号的特异遗传位点44-51
    3.6 碧蚂4 号特异遗传位点与农艺性状的相关性51-53
4 讨论53-55
    4.1 亲本对后代的遗传贡献率53-54
    4.2 变异带的产生54
    4.3 骨干亲本的特点54-55
5 结论55-57
参考文献57-66
致谢66-67
攻读学位期间发表文章情况67
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