王屋山地区啮齿动物对林木种子的扩散与贮藏

Forest Seeds Dispersal and Hoarding by Rodent in Mt. Wangwu Area, Jiyuan, China

作者: 专业:细胞生物学 导师:杨冬之 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 郑州大学

Keywords

Rodent, Seeds, Dispersal, Hoarding, Wild apricot, Cork oak, Habitat, Season

        许多动物,如啮齿动物和鸟类能够捕食和扩散植物的种子或果实,啮齿动物将种子搬运后改变了种子的时空分布,避免了与母树的资源竞争,较高水平的捕食等问题,成为种子的有效扩散者。搬运后被分散埋藏的种子一旦逃脱啮齿动物或其他动物的取食,就可能在适宜的条件下萌发并最终建成幼苗,因而在森林更新中起着重要作用。于2009年4月、7月、10月在次生林、退耕地和灌丛中分别释放人工标记的山杏种子,观察啮齿动物搬运和贮藏山杏种子的季节和生境差异,于2009年10月在次生林、退耕地和灌丛中分别释放人工标记的栓皮栎种子,观察啮齿动物对栓皮栎种子搬运和贮藏的生境差异,探讨啮齿动物与植物之间的互惠和协同进化关系,为森林的自然更新和人工直播造林提供基础资料和理论依据。主要结论:1)作用于山杏和栓皮栎种子的啮齿动物主要有大林姬鼠、社鼠、黑线姬鼠和大仓鼠。啮齿动物的数量和相对密度存在显著的生境和季节差异,其中啮齿动物数量秋季大于夏季,夏季大于春季;灌丛大于退耕地,退耕地大于次生林。2)啮齿动物对山杏种子的扩散和贮藏受生境和季节的影响。次生林中种子消失率慢,搬运距离近,并且啮齿动物对种子的处理以贮藏为主,取食较少;灌丛和退耕地种子消失率快,搬运距离远,且取食较多;秋季释放种子消失最快,夏季次之,春季最慢,且春季和夏季啮齿动物会取食较多的山杏种子,而秋季则以贮藏为主,取食很少。3)啮齿动物对栓皮栎种子的扩散与贮藏受生境的显著影响。退耕地和灌丛中啮齿动物原地取食和搬运后取食多,而次生林中原地取食和搬运后取食少。4)啮齿动物对山杏和栓皮栎种子的扩散和贮藏策略明显不同。山杏种子的扩散速率大于栓皮栎种子,且啮齿动物倾向于贮藏山杏种子而取食栓皮栎种子;从搬运距离看,啮齿动物对山杏种子的搬运距离大于栓皮栎种子,啮齿动物的这种贮食策略可能会对来年山杏和栓皮栎幼苗建成产生影响。
    Many animals such as birds and rodents can eat and dispersal plant seeds or fruits, which may thereby affect the seeds spatiotemporal distribution, this avoid the competition with there mother trees, and high level eaten by animals. Some seeds which are scattering-hoarding by rodents in the suitable place may germination. This is very good for the deforested area restoration.Taking the State-owned Yugong Forest Farm in Jiyuan of Henan, China as study sire, the tagged seeds of wild apricot were artificially released in secondary forest, rehabilitated land, shrub in the spring, summer, autumn 2009, aimed to investigate their dispersal and hoarding by rodents in different season and habitat. The tagged seeds of Cork oak were released in secondary forest, rehabilitated land, shrub in the autumn 2009, aimed to investigate their dispersal and hoarding by rodents in different habitat, which can give some useful advices for ecological restoration.Main results and conclusions are listed below:1)It was found that Apodemus peninsula, Niviventer confucianus, Apodemus agrarius, Cricetulus triton were the main rodent species acting on the seeds dispersal and hoarding. The numbers of rodents were significantly lower in spring than in summer, and also, in summer than in autumn;the number of rodents was significantly lower in secondary forest than in rehabilitated land, and also, in rehabilitated land than in shrub.2)The dispersal and hoarding of wild apricot seeds were significantly affected by season and habitat. The mean transportation distance in the secondary forest was shorter than in rehabilitated land and shrub, and the rodents preferred hoarding wild apricot seeds in secondary forest and eating in rehabilitated land, shrub;the dispersal rate was significantly lower in spring than in summer, and also, in summer than in autumn, the rodents preferred hoarding seeds in the autumn and eating in summer and spring.3)The dispersal and hoarding of cork oak seeds were significantly affected by habitat. Rodent ate a lot of cork oak seeds in the situation in rehabilitated land and shrub, but ate a few seeds in secondary forest.4)There were significant difference between cork oak and wild apricot on seed consumption and hoarding in different habitats. The dispersal rate of cork oak seeds was significantly lower than wild apricot seeds, and rodents preferred eating cork oak seeds and hoarding wild apricot seeds; the mean transportation distance of cork oak seeds was shorted than wild apricot seeds, which may affect seed germination of two plant species in the next year.
        

王屋山地区啮齿动物对林木种子的扩散与贮藏

中文摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
1 引言11-16
    1.1 啮齿动物对种子的扩散与贮藏11-12
    1.2 研究进展12-16
        1.2.1 种子特征对啮齿动物扩散和贮藏种子的影响13-14
        1.2.2 生境和季节对啮齿动物扩散和贮藏种子的影响14-16
2 王屋山地区啮齿动物的种类与密度16-23
    2.1 研究地区16-18
    2.2 研究方法18-19
        2.2.1 样地设置18
        2.2.2 调查方法18
        2.2.3 数据处理18-19
    2.3 结果19-21
        2.3.1 啮齿动物群落组成19
        2.3.2 啮齿动物群落的时空动态19-21
    2.4 讨论21-23
        2.4.1 当地啮齿动物的优势种类21
        2.4.2 生境对啮齿动物组成的影响21
        2.4.3 啮齿动物的动态特征21-23
3 啮齿动物扩散和贮藏栓皮栎种子的生境差异23-33
    3.1 研究地区23-24
    3.2 研究方法24-26
        3.2.1 样地设置24
        3.2.2 种子的收集、标记与释放24-25
        3.2.3 啮齿动物调查25
        3.2.4 数据分析25-26
    3.3 结果26-30
        3.3.1 啮齿动物种类组成26
        3.3.2 栓皮栎种子的命运26-28
        3.3.3 扩散速率28-29
        3.3.4 扩散距离29-30
        3.3.5 二次扩散和贮藏点大小30
    3.4 讨论30-33
        3.4.1 啮齿动物组成及其动态30
        3.4.2 生境类型对栓皮栎种子命运的影响30-31
        3.4.3 生境类型对扩散速率和扩散距离的影响31
        3.4.4 生境对二次扩散和贮藏点大小的影响31-33
4 啮齿动物扩散和贮藏山杏种子的生境和季节差异33-50
    4.1 研究地区33-34
    4.2 研究方法34-35
        4.2.1 样地设置34
        4.2.2 种子收集、标记与释放34-35
        4.2.3 啮齿动物调查35
        4.2.4 数据分析35
    4.3 结果35-47
        4.3.1 啮齿动物组成35-36
        4.3.2 山杏种子的命运36-40
        4.3.3 扩散速率40-43
        4.3.4 扩散距离43-46
        4.3.5 埋藏点大小和二次扩散46-47
    4.4 讨论47-50
        4.4.1 影响种子命运的主要啮齿动物47
        4.4.2 山杏种子命运的时空变化47-48
        4.4.3 扩散速率和扩散距离的时空变化48-49
        4.4.4 二次扩散和埋藏点大小的时空变化49-50
5 啮齿动物对山杏和栓皮栎种子扩散与贮藏的比较50-62
    5.1 研究地区51
    5.2 研究方法51-52
        5.2.1 样地设置51
        5.2.2 种子收集、标记与释放51-52
        5.2.3 啮齿动物调查52
        5.2.4 数据分析52
    5.3 研究结果52-59
        5.3.1 作用于栓皮栎和山杏种子的主要啮齿动物52-53
        5.3.2 生境对栓皮栎和山杏种子命运的影响53-56
        5.3.3 生境对栓皮栎和山杏种子扩散速率和扩散距离的影响56-58
        5.3.4 生境对栓皮栎和山杏种子埋藏点大小和二次扩散的影响58-59
    5.4 讨论59-62
        5.4.1 影响林木种子的主要啮齿动物59-60
        5.4.2 啮齿动物对栓皮栎和山杏种子取食和贮藏的选择60
        5.4.3 两种种子扩散速率和扩散距离的比较60-61
        5.4.4 两种种子二次扩散和埋藏点大小的比较61-62
6 结论62-63
参考文献63-74
个人简历、在学期间发表的学术论文和研究成果74-75
致谢75
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