秦汉黄河中下游地区作物病虫灾害研究

A Study on Crop Diseases Disaster and Insect Pests Disaster in Area Along the Mid-lower Yellow River During the Qin and Han Dynasties

作者: 专业:科学技术史 导师:王星光 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 郑州大学

Keywords

Qin and Han Dynasties, Area along the mid-lower Yellow River, Crop diseases and insect pests disasters, Technology, Tactics

        鉴于灾害史研究领域中鲜有关于作物病灾的研究成果,以及秦汉时期黄河中下游地区灾害多发的史实。本文尝试以秦汉时期黄河中下游地区的作物病灾和虫灾为研究对象,并对它们展开了深入分析。首先通过对两种灾害的发生情况统计、分析,发现秦汉时期黄河中下游地区作物病虫灾害的发生数量呈上升趋势。并依此结合其它信息推测出与两种灾害密切相关的气候变化情况,即秦汉时期黄河中下游地区的整体气候有向温暖、干燥发展的趋势。接着从自然和社会两个角度入手,并加入了具体的史例分析。发现自然因素在当时对作物病虫灾害起主要作用,特别是作为该地区最大生态系统的黄河,它的水体变化对两种灾害具有直接影响。而对于作物病灾和虫灾,由于两者本身就是重要的自然环境因素,所以两者相互之间也会因为具体情况而产生促进或阻碍的作用。此外,战乱、人口变迁等社会因素,也会间接作用于作物病虫灾害的发生、发展。特别是人口变迁因素,由于某地区农耕人口减少会造成大面积荒地,从而形成有利于病虫灾害发生的环境,所以其影响也是不容忽视的。最后深入发掘、探析古人应对作物病、虫灾害的减灾技术及策略。通过分析发现,农业防治技术是古人预防两种灾害的主要手段,其中有许多科学、合理的内容值得我们学习和借鉴。尽管秦汉官府的减灾策略及措施已开始趋向成熟,但由于东汉中央集权实力减弱,导致中央在整个国家减灾工作中所占的比重明显降低。此外,王莽在作物病虫灾害的减灾策略方面的创新性贡献也是值得我们认真研究和借鉴的。
    Because of the present situation that academic achievements for the historical crop diseases disaster is rare in the field of historical disaster research and the historical fact that the area along the mid-lower Yellow River had come into disaster-prone phase during the Qin and Han dynasties, this article try to take the crop diseases disaster and insect pests disaster which breaked out in the Area along the mid-lower Yellow River during the Qin and Han dynasties as the research object, and extend a depth analysis for them.First, we find the trend that the number of the crop diseases disaster and insect pests disaster which breaked out in the Area along the mid-lower Yellow River were rising during the Qin and Han dynasties by counting and analysing the occurrence of the two disasters. We also make conjecture that the general climate of Area along the mid-lower Yellow River during the Qin and Han dynasties had the trend of warming and drying.Second, from natural and social views and join analysis of concrete historcal examples, we find that natural factors played a leading role for the influence to crop diseases and insect pests in the past. Particularly the yellow river as the biggest ecosystem in the area, its water change affected the two disasters directly. The crop diseases and insect pests disasters acted as the important environmental factors, they affected one another because of the specific environment. In addtion, war, population change and other social factors also affected the occurrence and development of the two types of disasters indirectly. Especially the factor of population change, as farming population decline in a region would create vast areas of wasteland, and the environment favored the occurrence of the two types of disasters, so that the study for influence of population change is also indispensable.At last, we excavate and investigate the ancient technologies and strategies of disaster mitigation to the crop diseases and insect pests disasters. We find that Agriculture technologies were the main means to prevent and control the two types of disasters, and many scientific and reasonable contents deserves our study and learn. Inspite of the tactics and measures of Qin and Han goverment were becoming mature, the proportion of work in mitigation disasters by the central government of the Eastern Han dynasty was reduced, because of the weakening of the centralization strength of the Eastern Han government. In addition, Wang Mang contributed with innovation to the strategies of mitigation to crop diseases and insect pests disasters, and these contents are worth our careful studying and learning.
        

秦汉黄河中下游地区作物病虫灾害研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
目录7-10
图和附表清单10-11
1 引言11-25
    1.1 研究的目的和意义11-12
    1.2 相关研究动态12-14
    1.3 研究方法、史料来源及存在的问题14-16
        1.3.1 研究的主要方法14-15
        1.3.2 史料收集的来源15
        1.3.3 研究中存在的问题15-16
    1.4 论文的结构16
    1.5 相关信息的界定与说明16-25
        1.5.1 作物非侵染性病害介绍16-18
        1.5.2 判断文献中记载的灾害为伴随发生作物非侵染性病灾的依据18-19
        1.5.3 秦汉黄河中下游地区的界定19-22
        1.5.4 判断作物病虫灾害是发生于黄河中下游地区所需要满足的条件22-23
        1.5.5 发生于秦汉黄河中下游地区的作物非侵染性病灾的评定依据23
        1.5.6 统计单次灾害的原则23-24
        1.5.7 有关时间分界点问题的说明24-25
2 秦汉黄河中下游地区作物病虫灾害基本情况25-49
    2.1 作物病灾基本情况25-35
        2.1.1 作物病灾的致灾原因统计与分析25-27
        2.1.2 作物病灾的地域分布情况27-29
        2.1.3 作物病灾的发生时间29-32
        2.1.4 各皇帝在位期间的病灾发生情况32-33
        2.1.5 作物病灾高发阶段介绍33-35
        2.1.6 作物病害灾情概况35
    2.2 虫灾基本情况35-49
        2.2.1 蝗灾基本情况36-45
        2.2.2 螟灾基本情况45-46
        2.2.3 其它可能造成灾害的农业害虫46-49
3 秦汉黄河中下游地区作物病虫灾害原因探析49-82
    3.1 自然因素与作物病虫灾害49-60
        3.1.1 气候与作物病虫灾害49-51
        3.1.2 生物因素与作物病虫灾害51-54
        3.1.3 土壤恶化与作物病虫灾害54
        3.1.4 黄河与作物病虫灾害54-56
        3.1.5 作物病灾与虫灾之间的相互影响56-58
        3.1.6 其它自然因素与作物病虫灾害58-60
    3.2 社会因素与作物病虫灾害60-74
        3.2.1 生产、生活与作物病虫灾害60-65
        3.2.2 重大事件及政策与作物病虫灾害65-71
        3.2.3 人口变迁与作物病虫灾害71-74
    3.3 作物病虫灾害史例分析74-82
        3.3.1 泰山郡两次蝗灾分析74-76
        3.3.2 蝗虫不入密县境内原因分析76-78
        3.3.3 螟虫不入中牟县原因分析78-79
        3.3.4 洛阳作物病虫灾害多发原因初步探析79-82
4 秦汉时期作物病虫灾害的减灾技术及策略82-115
    4.1 作物病虫害减灾技术82-98
        4.1.1 农业防治技术82-92
        4.1.2 药物、物理机械及生物防治技术92-94
        4.1.3 作物病虫灾害预测技术94-96
        4.1.4 工程技术在作物病虫灾害防治中的应用96-98
    4.2 官府应对作物病虫灾害的减灾策略98-115
        4.2.1 官府对作物病虫灾害防治技术的推广和教育策略98-100
        4.2.2 官府的备灾措施100-102
        4.2.3 作物病虫灾害测报制度的进一步发展102-103
        4.2.4 官府的救治措施103-104
        4.2.5 官府对减灾工作的管理和监督104-106
        4.2.6 对官府的减灾策略及相关问题评析106-115
5 结论115-117
参考文献117-122
致谢122-123
附录A123-147
个人简历、在学期间发表的学术论文与研究成果147
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