光照对棕色田鼠活动节律及视觉器官发育的影响

Effect of Light on Activity Patterns, Rhythm and Visual Organ Development of Mandarin Voles

作者: 专业:动物学 导师:路纪琪 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 郑州大学

Keywords

Lasiopodomys mandarinus, Mus musculus, Light intensity, Behavior, photoperiods, dark-light cycles, Retina, development

        棕色田鼠(Lasiopodomys mandarinus)是华北地区一种重要的农田害鼠,常年营地下洞道生活,其视觉已退化,特殊的地下低氧环境使其进化了特殊的视觉机制。有关地下啮齿动物的视觉研究及视觉退化机制一直是受关注的热点,为了解光照对棕色田鼠的活动节律以及其视觉器官发育的影响,为棕色田鼠的行为生态学、生理生态学等后续研究奠定基础,为探讨啮齿动物在黑暗环境下的视觉调节机制和视觉器官的进化提供依据,本研究应用昆明小鼠(Musmusculus)做对照,对不同光照强度和光周期下两种鼠的节律行为进行比较,测定不同光暗周期下视网膜的发育情况,研究结果如下:1光质对啮齿动物的行为格局和活动节律的影响。研究以光照强度和鼠种两种因素,在实验室内,利用动物行为监视系统,用焦点动物取样法(focus animal sampling),在<20、200、800和1600 Lux 4个水平的光照强度下,监测和记录棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠的移动和静止行为,并在实验结束时测定实验动物的体重;在800 Lux光照强度下和12 h中,监测并记录实验动物的行为。结果表明:1)光照强度与鼠种对静止行为存在显著交互作用,棕色田鼠的静止行为与光照强度间存在显著的负相关关系,而昆明小鼠的静止则与光照强度无显著的相关;2)光照强度对两种动物移动行为的影响与静止行为表现方式相反;3)12 h的光暴露条件下,棕色田鼠的相对活动显著强于昆明小鼠;4)光照强度对两种动物体重的影响不同,棕色田鼠体重与光照强度呈正相关关系,昆明小鼠与光照强度呈负相关关系但差异不显著。本研究进一步验证了地面鼠与地下鼠对光照强度适应的差别。2采用录像观察记录的方法,测定了棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠在不同的光暗周期下的昼夜节律的变化。结果表明:棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠在全黑条件和D/L=12h/12h条件下的昼夜活动节律存在极显著的差异,棕色田鼠在D/L=12h/12h条件下没有活动节律,在全黑条件下具有不严格的活动节律,在D/L=12h/12h条件下的活动强度明显多于全黑条件下的活动强度,休息强度则与活动强度相反;昆明小鼠在D/L=12h/12h和全黑条件下均具有严格的节律性,在D/L=12h/12h条件下的活动强度明显少与全黑条件下的活动强度,休息强度则与活动强度相反。3通过常规石蜡包埋、制作切片,测定了棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠在不同的光暗周期下出生6d、12d、18d、24d和成年鼠的视网膜的发育变化。结果表明:棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠之间体重、晶状体直径、色素层、核层厚度和视网膜的发育有极显著差异,眼球直径和神经节层细胞密度的发育有显著差异;光周期对外核层细胞密度的发育有显著性影响;鼠种和光周期之间的协同作用对体重和视网膜总厚度的发育有显著性影响。昆明小鼠的视网膜在正常光周期下发育快于黑暗条件下,而棕色田鼠的发育则表现出相反的趋势,研究结果提示光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠视网膜发育的作用模式是相反的,光可抑制棕色田鼠(地下鼠)的视网膜的发育,但对昆明小鼠(地上鼠)视网膜的发育有促进作用。
    (Department of Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,450001) (Institute of Biodiversity and Ecology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou,450001)Mandarin vole(Lasiopodomys mandarinus) which is a great agricultural rodent pest in the northern of China, spends almost all its life span underground that would made the vision degenerated after the long term subterranean evolution to adept. Those researches on vision degeneration and its mechanism have always been attention. To understand the effection of light to the behavior rhythem and eyespot growth, to settle basic data for future studies on behavior ecology and physiology ecology, and to provide data for researching the mechanism of vision regulation and evolution of eyespot in rodents within dark condition, here we comparaed the activity rhythem at different light intensity and dark-light cycle in mandarin vole and Kunming mouse (Mus musculus) which we employed for control, and detested the retina growth at different dark cycle in two redents, as follows:1 Light intensity exert important role on activity patterns of nocturnal and diurnal mammals. Under laboratorial conditions and being given four levels of light intensity,<20,200,800, and 1600 Lux, variations in body mass and behavior of Mandarin vole and KM mouse (Mus musculus) were investigated via employing focal animal sampling auto-vedio system. The results showed that:1) the interaction between light intensity and species was remarkable, the static behavior was significantly and negatively related to light intensity in Mandarin voles, while this behavior was insignificantly affected by light intensity KM mice; 2) behavioral patterns of movement were in contrast to static behavior mentioned-above both in Mandarin voles and KM mice; 3) under light conditions, the relative activity in Mandarin voles was significantly stronger than that in KM mice; and 4) light intensity played different influences on body masses of two rodent species, and the body mass was positively related to light intensity in Mandarin voles, whereas body mass in KM mice appeared not to be remarkably affected by light intensity. The result from this research tested the different response to light adaptation between subterranean and ground inhibited rodent species. Light would enhance activities for subterranean rodents, and appeared to change activity pattern unobvious.2 We measured the effect of dark-light cycles on the activity rhythm in Mandarin vole and KM mice by using video. As results domenstrated, both rodents had significant differences in the daily activity rhythm between dark and dark/light=12h/12h in two rodents. There was no daily activity rhythm of Mandarin vole under dark/light=12h/12h, while the daily activity rhythm of Mandarin vole was not significant under dark condition. For KM mice, the activity rates in dark/light=12h/12h was higher than that in dark condition, while the resting rate was reversed. There was significant daily activity rhythm in KM mice under dark/light=12h/12h, and also in dark. The activity rates in dark/light=12h/12 was lesser than that under dark, and resting rates exhibited reversely.3 We measured the effect of dark-light cycles on the retina growth of 6 d、12 d、18 d、24 d and adult mice after birth in Mandarin vole and KM mouse using conventional paraffin-embedded and production slice method. The results showed that:Between Mandarin vole and KM mouse, there were remarkable significant differences on the growth of body mass, lens diameter, pigmented layer, nuclear layer and retina; the effect of photoperiods on cell density of the outer nuclear layer was remarkable; the interaction between photoperiods and species was remarkable on the growth of body mass and retina. The retina growth rate of KM mice in normal light conditions was faster than that in dark conditions. However the Mandarin vole showed the opposite trend. The results suggested that the effect of photoperiods on two rodents was opposited, and light could restrain growth of retina in Mandarin voles (subterranean rodent), whereas promote retina growth in KM mice which derived from ground-lived ancestor.
        

光照对棕色田鼠活动节律及视觉器官发育的影响

摘要4-6
Abstract6-8
1 引言12-14
    1.1 选题背景及问题的提出12-13
    1.2 本课题研究的目的和意义13-14
2 光照对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠活动性的影响14-21
    2.1 材料与方法15-16
        2.1.1 实验动物15
        2.1.2 体重测定15
        2.1.3 光照强度设置及行为观察15
        2.1.4 光照时间设置及行为观察15-16
        2.1.5 数据分析16
    2.2 结果16-19
        2.2.1 光照强度对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠行为的影响16-18
        2.2.2 棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠相对活动的光照差异18-19
        2.2.3 光照强度对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠体重的影响19
    2.3 讨论19-21
3 光对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠昼夜节律的影响21-31
    3.1 研究方法21-23
        3.1.1 实验动物21-22
        3.1.2 实验方法22
        3.1.3 数据分析22-23
    3.2 结果23-28
        3.2.1 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠体重的作用23-24
        3.2.2 不同光照条件对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠昼夜节律的影响24-28
    3.3 讨论28-31
4 光照对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠眼发育的影响31-50
    4.1 研究方法31-33
        4.1.1 实验动物31-32
        4.1.2 实验方法32
        4.1.3 数据分析32-33
    4.2 结果33-48
        4.2.1 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠体重的影响33-34
        4.2.2 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠的眼球直径发育的影响34-36
        4.2.3 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠的晶状体直径的影响36-37
        4.2.4 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠颅骨发育的影响37-39
        4.2.5 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠色素层发育的影响39-40
        4.2.6 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠外核层发育的影响40-42
        4.2.7 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠内核层发育的影响42-43
        4.2.8 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠视网膜发育的影响43-45
        4.2.9 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠外核层细胞密度的影响45-46
        4.2.10 光周期对棕色田鼠和昆明小鼠神经节层细胞密度的影响46-48
    4.3 讨论48-50
5 结论50-51
参考文献51-59
附录59-66
个人简历、在学期间发表的学术论文与研究成果66-67
致谢67
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