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1-nC18烯基润滑油基础油的合成

Synthesis of Lubricating Base Oil Based on 1-Octadecnene

作者: 专业:化学 导师:吕春胜 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 东北石油大学

Keywords

1-octadecene, benzene, oligomerization, alkylation, AlCl3 catalyst, lubricant compositions

        聚α-烯烃(PAO)和烷基苯是合成润滑油中有发展前途的两种产品。由高碳数烯烃齐聚合成的PAO基础油具有粘度指数高、蒸发损失小、液相范围宽、凝点低及热氧化安定性好等优点。烷基苯基础油的低温性能十分优良,可以与矿物油以任意比例混合且与矿物油所用的非金属材料相配伍、闪点高、电气性能好、油中不含硫、氧化后沉淀物少,在合成烃中是非常有发展前途的品种。本文以此为出发点,将癸烯与1-nC18按不同比例混合,并使用不同比例的AlCl3催化剂,目的为合成一种高性能的PAO基础油。考察了反应温度(25℃、50℃、75℃)、反应时间(3 h、6 h、9 h)、加入C10/C18比例(100/5、100/10、100/15)、加入催化剂比例(AlCl3:1%、3%、5%)对混合齐聚反应的影响。按照石油和石油产品实验方法国家标准测定了产物的粘度、倾点、分子量。采用正交实验法和响应曲面法设计了实验,并对实验条件进行了最优选择。结果表明:在实验条件下,用癸烯与1-nC18烯烃混聚也可制备高性能的润滑油基础油。(粘度:υ100℃=5.64~23.22 mm2/s;υ40℃=31.9~181.9 mm2/s;粘度指数:123~168;倾点:﹣25℃~﹣44℃;分子量:609~713)。正交综合分析最佳水平为25℃、3 h、C10/C18比例100/15、催化剂为总重量的3%;响应曲面法分析中,对粘度交互影响最显著的因素是时间和温度,最佳取值为3h、50℃;对粘度指数交互影响最显著的因素是时间和温度,最佳取值为3h、75℃;对倾点交互影响最显著的因素是时间和温度,最佳取值为3h、25℃;对收率交互影响最显著的因素是时间和C10/C18比例,最佳取值为3h、C10/C18比例为100/15。在AlCl3催化剂的作用下,将苯与1-nC18烯烃按1:2的比例混合,目的为合成具有优良性质的二烷基苯基础油。考察了反应温度(25℃、50℃、75℃),反应时间(3 h、6 h、9 h、12 h)对烷基化反应的影响。按照石油和石油产品实验方法国家标准测定了产物的粘度、倾点、分子量。采用GC-MS,IR,NMR对产品的结构和组成进行了分析。研究表明,该烷基苯是具有高粘度指数(179~202),中等倾点(-3~+7℃),中等粘度(υ100℃=11.56~18.21 mm2/s;υ40℃=53.84~95.95 mm2/s),相对分子量适中(551~615)的润滑油基础油。
    Alpha olefin(PAO) and alkyl benzene is promising in synthetic lubricants. Synthesized from high carbon number olefin oligomerization of PAO base oil with high viscosity index,wide range of liquid phase and evaporation loss of small, low solidifying point and thermal oxidation stability, etc. And alkyl benzene base oil with excellent low temperature properties,can mixed with mineral oil in any proportion and compatibility with nonmetal materials in the mineral oil, high flash point and good electric specification, the oil contains no sulfur, less oxidized sediments, were promising varieties in synthetic hydrocarbons.In this paper, the lube base oil are synthesized with decene and 1-nC18 feedstock in the AlCl3 catalyst. The effects of the reaction temperature(25℃, 50℃, 75℃) and reaction time(3h, 6h, 9h),the proportion of the C10/C18(100/5,100/10,100/15) and the proportion of catalyst AlCl3(1:1%,1:3%,1:5%)on oligomerization were investigated. The viscosity, pour point and molecular weight were determined according to national standards of test method. The experiment is designed by orthogonal experiment and the response surface method and experimental condition for the optimal choice. In test conditions, The results show that decene and 1-octadecene can also be used to make high performance lubricant base oil(υ100℃=5.64 ~23.22mm2/s;υ40℃=31.9 ~ 181.9 mm2/s), viscosity index(123 ~ 168), pour point(- 25℃ ~-44℃), molecular weight(609 ~ 713).In the comprehensive analysis of the orthogonal experiment, optimum reaction conditions for 25℃,3h, the proportion of the C10/C18 was100/15, the proportion of catalyst AlCl3 was 3%. The response surface method showed that the time and temperature are a significant factors for the reciprocal effect of viscosity,viscosity index and pour point,the optimum selecting is 3 h,50℃, 3 h,75℃;3 h,25℃;and the time and the ratio of the C10 /C18 are the most for the yield,the optimum selecting is 3h,C10/C18 is 100/15.Under the action of AlCl3 catalyst, the benzene and 1-nC18 mixed according to the proportion of 1:2, aim to dialkylbenzene with excellent properties of base oil. The effects of the reaction temperature(25℃, 50℃, 75℃) and reaction time(3h, 6h, 9h, 12h) on alkylation were investigated. The viscosity, pour point and molecular weight of products were determined according to national standards of test method for petroleum and petroleum products. The studies have shown that the alkylbenzene has with viscosity index(179 ~ 202),pour point(-3~+7℃), viscosity(υ100℃=11.56~18.21mm2/s; υ40℃=53.84~95.95mm2/s),molecular weight(551~615), which is a desired component for lubricant base oil.
        

1-nC_(18)烯基润滑油基础油的合成

摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5
创新点摘要6-9
前言9-10
第一章 文献综述10-36
    1.1 润滑油市场概况10-12
    1.2 润滑油基础油的分类和行业标准12-15
        1.2.1 ISO分类标准12
        1.2.2 美国石油学会(API)分类标准12-14
        1.2.3 我国基础油分类标准14-15
    1.3 合成润滑油15-36
        1.3.1 合成润滑油概述15-24
        1.3.2 PAO合成油24-31
        1.3.3 烷基苯合成油31-36
第二章 AlCl_3催化 1-nC_(18)烯烃与癸烯混合制备PAO36-58
    2.1 实验部分36-43
        2.1.1 原料及仪器36
        2.1.2 试验装置36-37
        2.1.3 正交实验设计37-40
        2.1.4 响应曲面设计40-42
        2.1.5 1-nC_(18)烯烃与癸烯混合制备聚α-烯烃42
        2.1.6 产物性能测定42-43
    2.2 结果与讨论43-56
        2.2.1 正交设计结果分析43-48
        2.2.2 响应曲面结果分析48-56
    2.3 小结56-58
第三章 AlCl_3催化苯与 1-nC_(18)烯烃制备二烷基苯58-67
    3.1 实验部分58-59
        3.1.1 原料和仪器58
        3.1.2 苯与 1-nC_(18)烯烃制备二烷基苯58-59
        3.1.3 产物性质测定及表征方法59
    3.2 反应机理59
    3.3 结果与讨论59-66
        3.3.1 结构与表征59-62
        3.3.2 反应温度和反应时间对产物收率的影响62-63
        3.3.3 反应温度和反应时间对产物性质的影响63-66
    3.4 小结66-67
结论67-69
参考文献69-75
发表文章目录75-76
致谢76-77
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