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两京地区新莽墓葬研究

Burial Research on Period of Xing-mang Dynasty in Two Capitals

作者: 专业:考古学及博物馆学 导师:韩国河 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 郑州大学

Keywords

XinMang, luoyang, changan, tomb, social culture

        汉代(公元前202—公元220年)是中国历史上一个辉煌的时代,新莽时期是汉代历史中短暂而复杂的一段,也是西汉、东汉两段历史的分水岭。此时的社会,物质文明和精神文明高度发达,对两汉文化有承上启下的作用。以长安和洛阳为代表城市的两京地区是汉代的统治中心,两地的物质文化及社会思想也是最为发达的,影响周边地区的经济文化发展。在实际考古工作中,两京地区发现的汉墓数量众多,已建立其较为准确的断代标尺。故选取两京地区作为研究范围分析新莽墓葬的形制与特点,并结合其他地区新莽墓葬状况,分析不同地区间的文化差异以及京畿地区对其他地区的影响。本文首先介绍新莽时期的历史背景:西汉晚期王莽逐步以谶纬称帝、王莽改制、思想潮流等社会状况及相关研究状况;然后讲述本文的研究对象、方法、目的。最后概述新莽墓葬的发现概况与研究现状。然后运用类型学的方法,分别对洛阳地区新莽时期中小型墓葬及随葬品进行分型研究,从而总结出新莽时期的墓葬特点:墓葬形制逐渐宅第化,随葬物品生活化,出现祭台,有墓内祭祀现象,夫妇合葬逐渐在两地流行。另外分析当时的丧葬思想,厚葬、升仙、天人感应仍占主流,出现了复古风潮,与当时政治经济改革相一致,出了两京地区墓葬的区域差异。墓葬反映了当时的丧葬习俗,部分社会生活以及流行的社会思潮。但由于现有墓葬材料的有限,反应当时真实丧葬状况仍有欠缺,以期考古资料的不断丰富及研究理论方法的改进发展,最终还原出真实的新莽时期社会状况。
    Han Dynasty (202 BC-AD 220) is a glorious era in historyXin Mang, a short and complicated section of the Han Dynasty, is a dividing line between Western Han Dynasty and Eastern Han DynastyDuring this period, material and spiritual civilization is highly developed, which can be considered as the connecting link between the roles of Han cultureThere are two districts, marked by Chang’an and Luoyang, that we can call the dominating centers of Han Dynasty. Both of material culture and social thought are the most developed. They had a significant influence on the economic and cultural development of surrounding areas.At practical archaeological work, a large number of Han Tombs are excavated in these two districts. A relative standard dating of their ruler has been established.So the writer selects the Capital Area as the scope of the study of the shape and characteristics of Xin Mang tomb, and combines it with other parts of Xin Mang tombs, to analyze the cultural differences between those regions and the impact of Capital Area on other regions.This paper begins with the description of the historical background of Xin Mang period:In Late Western Han Dynasty, Wang Mang gradually became the emperor by advocating his theory of Chenwei. Then he carried out a series of reforms of social system, which brought changes to the thought trend at that time. All these events and social conditions will be discussed;Then the writer tells the object of this research, methods and purposes. In the end, an overview will be given for Xin Mang tomb discovery and its lastest results of survey and researchWith the typological method, Our research on the small tomb and its burial objects of Xin Mang period in Luoyang, can be summarized as such a conclusion:The shape and structure of tombs were gradually residentialized. Grave goods became more and more living. Sacrificial altar and fete activity appeared inside the tomb. The practice of "the wife following the husband in the grave" became popular in two districts. Some funeral thoughts, such as luxurious burials, immortality, Heaven-Human Induction, are still the mainstream. The ideas of restoring ancient ways originated. Differences can be seen between the funeral cultures of two regions as well as their economics and politics.The funeral burial customs, social life and some popular social thought can be reflected by their tombs.However, the available burial materials are limited; we can’t get accurate funeral information.Archaeological theory and methods still need enriching to get a restoration of real Xin Mang.
        

两京地区新莽墓葬研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1. 绪论9-17
    1.1 选题意义9-11
    1.2 历史背景11-15
    1.3 研究对象15-16
    1.4 研究方法16-17
2. 发现与研究现状17-24
    2.1 洛阳地区17-20
        2.1.1 发现17-19
        2.1.2. 研究现状19-20
    2.2 长安地区20-24
        2.2.1 发现20-22
        2.2.2 研究现状22-24
3. 洛阳地区新莽墓葬研究24-55
    3.1 墓葬分型研究24-37
        3.1.1 小型墓24-25
        3.1.2 中小型墓25-30
        3.1.3. 壁画墓30-37
    3.2 随葬品37-55
        3.2.1 陶器37-48
        3.2.2 玉石器48-49
        3.2.3. 铜器49-55
4. 长安地区新莽墓葬研究55-79
    4.1 墓葬形制研究55-65
        4.1.1. 小型墓55
        4.1.2. 中小型墓55-62
        4.1.3. 大型墓及壁画墓62-65
    4.2 随葬品65-79
        4.2.1. 陶器65-74
        4.2.2. 铜器74-76
        4.2.3. 玉石器76-79
5. 两京地区新莽墓的时代特点与区域差别79-86
    5.1 时代特点79-81
        5.1.1 墓葬第宅化79
        5.1.2. 墓内祭祀79-80
        5.1.3. 流行合葬80
        5.1.4. 随葬品生活化80-81
    5.2 丧葬思想81-83
        5.2.1. 厚葬81-82
        5.2.2. 升仙与生活化并存82
        5.2.3. 天人感应82-83
        5.2.4. 复古风潮83
    5.3 两京地区新莽墓葬的区域差别83-86
6. 小结86-89
参考文献89-92
后记92
        下载全文需92


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