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汉代“物勒工名”制度的考古学研究

Archaeological Research on "Inscribed Maker’s Names" System in Han Dynasty

作者: 专业:考古学及博物馆学 导师:韩国河 年度:2010  院校: 郑州大学

Keywords

        “物勒工名,以考其诚”,是中国古代国家管理手工业生产的一项重要制度,它以“物”为载体、“名”为媒介确立了生产者、监造者以及生产机构之间对产品的质量责任关系。从战国中期开始,列国普遍在器物上实施刻记制作者名字的勒名制度,为后世所传承沿用,尤其是在汉代这项制度的实施达到顶峰。“物勒工名”制度是指将器物制造者、监造者、制造机构等的名字刻在器物上,以便政府考察工匠和官员的绩效,从而加强国家对手工业生产和产品质量的管理。勒名的方式以刻铭为主,还包括烙印、戳印、漆书、墨书等。考古发现的汉代器物上的文字,其内容大多与“物勒工名”有关,而汉长安城未央宫刻文骨签的大量出土,又为我们了解汉代的“物勒工名”制度和工官组织提供了不可或缺的宝贵资料。汉代“物勒工名”制度的实施对象主要是官营机构制作的器物,内容一般包括制作日期、生产机构、官员名、工匠名、数量、编号等,基本内涵是工官(生产机构)、工官官员、生产工匠。其勒名形式:一是工官(生产机构)+监造官员+主造官员+生产工匠;二是工官+官吏名或工官+工匠名;三是仅刻制造机构,工官或亭、市和市府;四是仅刻工匠名。随着勒名内容的变化,可以看出两汉时期的“物勒工名”制度大致经历了沿用“秦制”的西汉初年、正式形成的西汉前中期、繁荣稳定的西汉中后期至东汉前期以及衰退的东汉中后期等四个演化阶段。汉代“物勒工名”制度的演变与官营手工业生产机构——工官的发展变化密切相关。工官设立后,“物勒工名”制度逐渐形成,当工官经营地位达到顶峰时,“物勒工名”制度也达到繁荣期,当工官机构衰退时,“物勒工名”制度也跟着衰落下去。同时,通过对“物勒工名”的研究,也了解到汉代工官从中央到地方的层次结构和设置布局;工官组织内部生产分工合理,责任明确;工官产品的流通途径主要有商品贸易、政府调配、供进、赏赐和人员迁徙等。进而,认识到“物勒工名”制度的推行为汉代物质文化的繁荣提供了制度保障。
    "Inscribed maker’s name on artifacts they made, in order to examine their responsibilities", ancient Chinese handicraft production of the country management system, which the "objects" as the carrier, "name" for the media, established producers, regulators and the production sector on the quality of the product liability relations. From the Mid-Warring States period, nations in general the implementation of the utensils engraved maker’s name of Inscribe Name System, later has been adopted heritage, especially in the implementation of this system during the Han dynasty reached its peak."Inscribed maker’s names" system is the makers, managers, the manufacturing establishments name engraved on the articles, so that the governments examine craftsman and officials of the performance, thereby strengthening national handicraft production and product quality management. Inscribe is the main way to write articles, also includes brand, stamp, ink writing, lacquer writing, and so on. Archaeological finds cultural relics of the Han dynasty on the most of its contents and objects to the "maker’s name", Central government offices Wei-yang Palace site of Han Chang’ an city to sign a large number of bone inscriptions excavated for our understanding of the Han Dynasty "Inscribed maker’s name" system, and Gong guan (Responsible for the production and management of the state bureaucracy in the Han Dynasty) organize the production system provides a wealth of material.The Han Dynasty "Inscribed maker’s names" system is government-run institutions mainly produced artifacts, including the production date of the general content and production agencies, officials name, craftsmen name, quantity, number, etc., the basic content is the Gong guan (production facilities), labor officials, production craftsmen. The Fleming forms:First, Gong guan and supervision made official and official and master artisan production; Second, workers or the workers were official and official and officials craftsmen name; third is carved only manufacturing sector, Gong guan or Ting, Shi and Shi Fu(the country industrial and commercial administration); Fourth, only the name engraved craftsmen.Inscriptions content changes, reflecting the Han Dynasty "Inscribed maker’s name" system has gone through the early of the Western Han Dynasty, the official formation of the Han Dynasty, the prosperity and stability of the Western Han Dynasty in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the early decline the late Eastern Han Dynasty the four stages of evolution. Carving the Han Dynasty were the evolution of the system is government-run handicraft production organizations-Official Position of work closely related to changes. The official establishment of the Han dynasty, "Inscribed maker’s name" system is formed; the position reached the peak, the latter to achieve prosperity and the decay in the latter tacking on the decline.Through the detailed literal content of utensils, we can discovery of the Han dynasty Gong guan officials from the central to local levels of structure and set the layout; work reasonable official production-sharing and accountability within the organization. Circulation channel of Gong guan products mainly is commodity trade, the government allocation for the forward, reward and personnel movement. Further concerned, "Inscribed maker’s name" system for the material and cultural prosperity of the Han system of protection provided.
        

汉代“物勒工名”制度的考古学研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1 绪论11-21
    1.1 "物勒工名"制度的提出及其概念11-14
        1.1.1 有关"物勒工名"制度的文献记载及其形成11-13
        1.1.2 "物勒工名"制度的概念13-14
    1.2 汉代"物勒工名"制度的研究简史及现状14-18
        1.2.1 汉代"物勒工名"制度研究简史14-16
        1.2.2 相关内容研究现状16-18
    1.3 研究方法及相关问题说明18-21
        1.3.1 研究路径和基本内容18-19
        1.3.2 相关问题的界定与说明19-21
2 汉代"物勒工名"的考古发现与勒名内容21-48
    2.1 汉代"物勒工名"器物的考古发现21-37
        2.1.1 生产生活类遗物21-33
        2.1.2 其它类文化遗物33-37
    2.2 各类器物"物勒工名"内容举例37-48
        2.2.1 铜器38-39
        2.2.2 漆器39-41
        2.2.3 铁器41
        2.2.4 陶器41-44
        2.2.5 兵器44-45
        2.2.6 度量衡器、钱范及其它器物45-48
3 骨签与汉代"物勒工名"制度48-61
    3.1 汉代骨签的考古发现及相关研究48-55
        3.1.1 考古发现的骨签材料及刻文内容48-53
        3.1.2 相关问题研究53-55
    3.2 骨签刻文分类及其所反映的"物勒工名"制度55-61
        3.2.1 骨签刻文内容的分类及使用55-57
        3.2.2 骨签刻文所反映的"物勒工名"制度57-61
4 汉代"物勒工名"制度的类型、特征及演变61-80
    4.1 "物勒工名"的类型61-65
        4.1.1 官营器物"物勒工名"类型61-65
        4.1.2 民营器物的"物勒工名"类型65
    4.2 汉代"物勒工名"制度的基本内涵和时代特征65-68
        4.2.1 "物勒工名"制度的基本内涵66
        4.2.2 汉代"物勒工名"制度的时代特征66-68
    4.3 汉代"物勒工名"制度的演变及其历史背景68-76
        4.3.1 发展演变过程68-73
        4.3.2 "物勒工名"制度演变的历史背景73-76
    4.4 汉代"物勒工名"制度的作用和影响76-80
        4.4.1 汉代"物勒工名"制度的历史作用76-78
        4.4.2 汉代"物勒工名"制度的影响78-80
5 "物勒工名"制度与汉代工官研究80-91
    5.1 汉代工官的设置及组织生产体制80-86
        5.1.1 工官的设置及职能80-82
        5.1.2 工官的组织管理体系和内部生产分工82-84
        5.1.3 地方"工官"与铁官之关系84-86
    5.2 "物勒工名"与汉代工官地位的转变86-88
        5.2.1 西汉盐铁官营之前:工官组织的形成期86
        5.2.2 盐铁官营至东汉前期:工官组织的鼎盛期86-87
        5.2.3 东汉中后期:工官组织经营地位的衰退87-88
    5.3 工官产品的流通88-91
        5.3.1 供进、赏赐89
        5.3.2 商业性贸易89
        5.3.3 生产调配89-90
        5.3.4 随着人员的迁徙而流动90-91
6 结语91-94
参考文献94-98
附表98-121
    表1 铜器、兵器、度量衡器及其它器物"物勒工名"一览表98-104
    表2 漆器"物勒工名"铭文一览表104-113
    表3 汉代铁官铭标记一览表表113-115
    表4 钱范勒名表115-116
    表5 官营机构产品"物勒工名"对照表116-117
    表6 汉代"物勒工名"内容演变概览表117-119
    表7 汉代工官机构及其生产器物一览表119-121
个人简介121-122
致谢122
        下载全文需122


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