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豫北地区战国墓研究

Study on Tombs of the Warring States Period in Northern Henan

作者: 专业:考古学及博物馆学 导师:韩国河 年度:2010  院校: 郑州大学

Keywords

        豫北地区在战国时期属魏国的河内地区,这里多次为古代战场,战争必将导致文化的碰撞,并最终反映到墓葬制度上来。本文通过对豫北地区战国墓的综合研究,结合文献资料,以期对当时的社会历史进程有所揭示。本文主要分四大章,第一章主要是对豫北地区战国墓的概况和研究现状进行概述。豫北地区主要是指当时魏国的河内部分地区,今新乡、安阳一带,年代为公元前453年韩赵魏三家灭知伯和公元前221年秦统一之间;并对豫北地区公布的战国墓做了统计,共计两百多座;第三节对有关战国墓的研究现状进行了总结;第四节简单介绍了本文的选题意义和研究方法,战国时期,豫北地区的政治、军事地位较为重要,墓葬材料的相关研究对认识当时的社会状况有重要的意义,本文主要采用考古学类型学和文化因素分析法进行分析。第二章和第三章是本文的主体部分。第二章是豫北地区战国墓的类型学分析,分别对墓葬和随葬品进行考古类型学的分析,并对这一地区的墓葬进行了分组和分期,共分为战国早、中、晚三期,每期又分成早、晚两段。第三章主要是文化因素的分析,首先是对整个豫北地区战国墓所反映的文化因素进行分析总结,然后又与周围地区进行比较研究,总结出当时的社会状况,整个豫北地区是由各种不同文化因素,通过战争、政治变迁等活动相互渗透和影响而形成的复杂的文化面貌,具备了周邻文化的特点,最终与周边地区趋于统一。第四章主要是对相关问题的探讨。主要是对固围村三座大墓的墓主人身份进行了猜测和论证,固围村大墓一直是学术界关注的焦点,本文在前人研究的基础上,谈了一些自己的看法,认为很有可能是魏惠王及其夫人的陵墓;另外,还对随葬青铜器上的纹饰图案进行了分析,对研究当时的社会生产、生活等具有非常重要的价值。通过豫北地区战国墓的分期和文化因素分析,结合几次较为重要的战争如“桂陵之战”、“马陵之战”、“伊阙之战”和“长平之战”以及魏惠王迁都大梁,赵国迁都邯郸等历史事件,对当时的历史进程等有了较为直观的认识,“长平之战”后,各地区的墓葬虽然仍具有多样性,但在一定程度上已呈现了一致性。
    In the Warring States Period, the North of Henan province belongs to the Henei region of the Wei, where many of the ancient battle happened, and the war will inevitably lead to cultural collisions, ultimately affect the burial systems. According to the integrated study of the tombs of the Warring States Period in Northern Henan Province, combined with literature information, this essay may reveal the socio-historical process at that time.This paper is divided into four chapters, and the first chapter is mainly an overview on the discovery and research of the tombs of the Warring States Period in Northern Henan Province. The tombs of the Warring States Period in Northern Henan Province are defined respectively in the time and geographical range in this essay. The Northern Henan mainly refers to the areas of Xinxiang, Anyang, and so on, including 230-plus years between 453 BC when the states of Han, Zhao and Wei exterminate ZhiBo and 221 BC when Qin Dynasty unified the Center China. Then, this essay makes a statistic of the tombs of the Warring States released in North Henan, which is totally more than 200 blocks. SectionⅢis a summary of the studies on the status of the tombs of the Warring States. SectionⅣbriefly introduces the significance on the topic selection and the research methods of this essay. The northern Henan region’s political and military status is important in the Warring States period, and the relevant study on tombs material is important to explore the social situation at that times. This essay mainly applies the basic archaeological typology and the method of cultural factors analysis to evaluate the burial material.ChaptersⅡandⅢis the main part of this article. ChapterⅡis the archaeological typology analysis of the tombs of the Warring States Period in Northern Henan, which make archaeological typology analysis on tombs and funerary objects respectively. Based on the archaeological typology analysis, burial in this region have been grouped and staged, which is divided into the early, the middle, and the late of Warring States period, in each period, it is divided into sooner and later two steps. The third chapter is mainly an analysis of cultural factors, above all, analyze an summarize the cultural factors which the tombs of the Warring States Period in Northern Henan Province reflected, and then make a comparative study with the surrounding area, summed up the prevailing social situation. The entire region of Northern Henan is formed of a variety of different sources of cultural factors, which exhibit a complex cultural landscape through war, political changes and other activities of mutual penetration and influence. It posses the cultural characteristics of surrounding areas, and ultimately trends to unified in the aspects of burial and the cultural features.Chapter IV is mainly to explore the relevant issues. It mainly demonstrates identity of the owner of three large tombs in Gu-wei village. The three large tombs in Gu-wei village have been the focus of attention in academia, and on the basis of previous studies, this paper talk about some of its own view that the three large tombs’owners are most likely to be WEI-Hui wang and his wives. In addition, this paper analyses the decoration pattern of bronze funerary, which is different from the Shang and Zhou dynasty in artistic style. The decoration pattern of bronze in Warring States is rich in content and depicts the image realistically, which reflects the war, hunting, picking mulberry and other activities at that time, and provides a very important value to study the social production, and life then.According to the periodization and the analysis on cultural factors of Tombs of Warring States in northern Henan, it is fully recognized that many kinds of cultural factors growed and declined in various stage. Combined with the prevailing historical events, such as several of the important war, "GuiLing War," "Maling war","YiQue war "and" Changping war", and the capital’s movement at WEIHuiWang’s times and Zhao state even other historical and political incidents, we may have an intuitive recognition of the historical process at that time. After "Changping war", the period of Warring States, gradually moves toward reunification from the split. Different regions exhibit diversities of burial, but to some extent, have shown signs of consistency.
        

豫北地区战国墓研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1 引言9-10
2 豫北地区战国墓的概况及研究现状10-22
    2.1 豫北地区战国墓研究的范围10-12
        2.1.1 豫北地区战国墓研究的时间范围10
        2.1.2 豫北地区战国墓研究的空间范围10-12
    2.2 豫北地区战国墓的发现概况及统计12-17
        2.2.1 豫北地区战国墓的发现概况12-13
        2.2.2 豫北地区战国墓的统计13-17
    2.3 战国墓的研究现状17-20
    2.4 本文的选题意义及研究方法20-22
3 豫北地区战国墓的类型学研究22-53
    3.1 墓葬分类22-28
    3.2 随葬品的类型学分析28-46
        3.2.1 陶器的类型学分析28-42
        3.2.2 铜器的类型学分析42-46
    3.3 关于几座无陶铜器墓年代的推断46-48
    3.4 墓葬的分组与分期48-53
        3.4.1 墓葬及随葬品的分组48-50
        3.4.2 豫北地区战国墓的分期50-53
4 豫北地区战国墓的文化因素分析53-66
    4.1 豫北地区战国墓的文化区域特征53-60
        4.1.1 每个墓区的文化特征53-60
    4.2 与周边其他文化因素的比较60-66
5 相关问题研究66-72
    5.1 关于固围村三座大墓的墓主人分析66-68
    5.2 有关青铜器纹饰图案的分析68-72
6 结论72-74
参考文献74-76
附表76-88
致谢88-89
个人简历89
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