首页 > 硕士 > 历史学 > 正文

明代私债探析

Private Lending of Ming Dynasty

作者: 专业:专门史 导师:赵毅 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 辽宁师范大学

Keywords

Ming Dynasty, private lending, social impact

        明代是中国封建王朝的转型时期,尤其随着中晚明时期资本主义萌芽的产生、发展,整个社会出现了与以往不同的局面。这包含社会风俗、风气的变化,其中比较明显的就是明代社会经济结构变动下的私人借贷问题,私人借贷既是社会经济结构变动的产物,又反过来影响社会结构变动的方向和水平。本文所阐述、论证的是明代私债问题,这是一个王朝历史发展大背景下的必然产物,从经济、社会、群体的角度影响着社会的变革与前进。私人借贷在现象上是个经济问题,终极本质上却是个社会问题,因而这既是经济史的范畴,又是社会史必须要面对和讨论的问题。本文从借贷的源起、借贷的原因与用途、借贷的途径、借贷的社会影响等五个方面谈起,详细阐述了明代民间借贷的各个因素,其中最为主要的是探讨明代私债的社会影响,并分别从正反两个方面入手,这是本文所分析的主要问题,当然,也是前人笔墨所较少着力的话题。明代民间借贷在一定意义上促进了商品经济的发展,维护了封建制度,并辅助性的稳定了社会秩序;但私债在更深层次上所带来的却是负面作用,特别是在高利息率的前提下的不同阶层之间人的资金挪用,在很大程度上导致了自耕农的破产、农业生产的凋敝、社会结构的不稳定,尤其是在社会奢靡之风的养成上有着不可推卸的责任。明代民间借贷还有一系列与经济领域相关的论题,这其中比较重要的是中人的作用、利息率的高低、契约的订立,不少史学工作者先前对此有所论及,这是本文的次重点。
    The Ming Dynasty is a transition period of Chinese history, with the burgeoning of capitalism, development, growth, the emergence of a whole different situation with the past. This includes both production and living areas, including social customs, climate changes, which some of the more obvious changes in socio-economic structures of the Ming dynasty under the issue of private lending, private lending is the socio-economic structural changes produced material, which in turn affects the social structure direction of change, level.Described in this paper, demonstration of private debt problems of the Ming dynasty, a dynasty that is the context of historical development, the inevitable outcome, and from economic, social and population point of view affect social change and progress. Private borrowing from the phenomenon is an economic problem, but in the end is essentially a social problem, and therefore the scope of this domain is economic history, but also a social history have to face and discuss issues. In this paper, the origins of lending and borrowing causes and purposes, ways of lending and borrowing of about five aspects of social impact that the small private lending Ming explained the various factors.The most important one to explore the social impact of the Ming private debt, and two were from the pros and cons into the problem, which is my main analysis, of course, are rarely mentioned by the previous topic.In a sense, borrowing the Ming Dynasty to promote the commodity’s Fa Zhan Jing Ji, maintaining the feudal system, and supporting the stability of the social order; Dan private debt in a more deeper level brings us a negative role, particularly in the high interest Lv under the premise of human capital between different sectors of embezzlement, in large part led to the bankruptcy of farmers, agricultural production, depressed, unstable social structure, especially in the cultivation of social Luxurious Atmosphere played the "inescapable "effect.Ming borrowing a series of topics related with the economic field, the more important of which is the human role in the level of interest rates, contract formation, which many historians have discussed previously, this is the article A second key.
        

明代私债探析

中文摘要4-5
英文摘要5
引言8-10
第一章 借贷形式10-14
    一、典当借贷10-12
        (一) 质押物的不同10-12
            1、房产、田地10-11
            2、衣物、器具11-12
            3、人本身12
        (二) 典当物可赎12
    二、央中借贷12-14
        (一) 中人13
        (二) 借贷文书13-14
第二章 借贷原因、用途14-18
    一、为官所用14-16
    二、经营获利16-17
    三、奢侈性消费17
    四、其他生活所需17-18
第三章 贷资来源18-21
    一、向当铺借贷18
    二、向富室借贷18-19
    三、向亲邻借贷19
    四、寺观放贷19-20
    五、族产放贷20-21
第四章 私债盛行的原因21-24
    一、折银后赋税加重21-22
    二、本末观念的转变22-23
    三、土地兼并、灾荒造成的失地23-24
第五章 明代私债的作用及社会影响24-32
    一、消极的方面24-30
        (一) 农民破产,沦为流民、佃农、奴仆24-26
        (二) 卖官贿爵,政治腐败26-27
        (三) 奢靡之风泛滥27-29
        (四) 宗族、亲族关系破坏29-30
        (五) 加速了明王朝的灭亡30
    二、积极的方面30-32
        (一) 维护了封建制度31
        (二) 促进了商品经济的发展31
        (三) 促进了观念的转变31-32
余论——其他需要说明的问题32-36
    一、士大夫、士人借贷的异化32-33
    二、关于借贷利息33-34
    三、关于放债的争论34
    四、关于中人取利34-36
参考文献36-39
致谢39
        下载全文需50


本文地址:

上一篇:晚清立宪派研究
下一篇:天津反日会研究(1928年8月-1929年6月)

分享到: 分享明代私债探析到腾讯微博           收藏
评论排行
公告