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晚清立宪派研究

Research on the Constitutionalist of the Later Qing Dynasty

作者: 专业:中国近现代史 导师:喻大华 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 辽宁师范大学

Keywords

late Qing, constitutionalists, constitutional movement, the Revolution of 1911

        20世纪初,中国处于内忧外患的困境中。随着民族危机的不断加深,中国人民试图寻找一条挽救危亡的道路。1901年,清政府开始实行新政改革,但是,这些改革却没有涉及根本的政治制度。一些接受了西方教育的新型知识分子发出了立宪救国的呼声,希望通过清政府的和平改革,在中国建立起一种先进的资本主义性质的君主立宪政体。这些主张君主立宪的人就是晚清的立宪派。立宪派抓住清政府新政改革的契机,努力进行舆论宣传和社会活动,终于促成了清政府同意仿行宪政,并在清政府筹备立宪的整个过程中积极参与,展开了轰轰烈烈的立宪运动。立宪派创办了各种报刊杂志,成立了诸多立宪团体,通过各种形式大力宣传西方宪政思想,对广大人民群众进行思想启蒙;在筹办咨议局的过程中,立宪派四处奔走,积极参与和组织咨议局的初选和复选工作,初步锻炼了民众的政治参与能力;在民族危机加深、救国心切的情形下,立宪派组织联合各省咨议局代表和其他团体以及广大人民数次请愿,要求提前召开国会,把立宪运动推向一个高潮。但是,清政府的表现却不断让人失望,1911年5月,“皇族内阁”的成立更是暴露了其假立宪的面目。立宪派开始放弃对清政府的幻想。武昌起义爆发后,绝大部分立宪派都投入了革命的阵营,在各省区的独立活动中积极奔走,和革命派紧密合作、共同努力,为辛亥革命的胜利作出了巨大的贡献。虽然立宪救国的尝试最终失败了,但在立宪运动的过程中,立宪派为改变中国的封建专制制度做出了不可磨灭的贡献,并在一定程度上启迪了民智、促进了中国政治制度的现代化。立宪派的某些政治实践为后来的民国政府提供了借鉴。回首那段历史,立宪派的救国热情和历史功绩是值得肯定的。
    In the early 20th century, China had both internal and external difficulties. With the deepening national crisis, the Chinese people tried to find a way to save from extinction. In 1901, the Qing government implemented the New Deal reforms, but these reforms did not involve the fundamental political system. Some Western-educated intellectuals accepted the constitutional appeal to save the nation. By the Qing government’s political reform, they want to build capitalism in China, the nature of the constitutional monarchy. Those who advocated a constitutional monarchy is the late Qing constitutionalists.Efforts by the constitutionalists’propaganda and social activities, the Qing government finally agreed to constitutionalism. In the Qing government’s entire constitutional process of the preparation, the Constitutionalists actively involved.Constitutionalists established a variety of newspapers and magazines, set up a number of constitutional bodies, vigorously publicized through various forms of Western constitutional ideas, enlightened the people’s thinking; In the preparation process of the Conference Board, constitutionalists actively involved in the Conference Board’s Primaries and runoffs activities, initially tempered the ability of the people’s political participation; In the case of a deepening national crisis, the constitutionalists joint provincial representatives of the Conference Board, other groups, and majority of the people. They demanded the convening of Congress in advance. Constitutional movement was to a climax.However, the Qing government’s performance has been disappointing. In May 1911, the establishment of "royal cabinet" exposed the false appearance. Constitutionalists began to give up the illusion of the Qing government. After the outbreak of the Wuchang Uprising, most constitutionalists have joined the revolutionary camp. They actively participate in independent activities of the provinces. They worked closely with the revolutionaries and made a contribution in the Revolution’s victory.Although the attempt of constitutional salvation ultimately failed, but in the process of constitutional movement, the constitutionalists has made an indelible contribution for changing the feudal autocratic system in China and promoted the modernization of China’s political system to some extent. Some political practice of constitutionalists provided a reference for the Government of the Republic of China.Looking back at the history, constitutionalists and their efforts deserve our recognition.
        

晚清立宪派研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5
引言8-11
    研究动态8-9
    选题动机9-10
    基本思路10-11
一、严峻的民族危机与立宪运动的兴起11-21
    (一) 民族危机的加深与立宪派的形成11-14
        1、民族资产阶级的壮大与近代新型知识分子的产生11-12
        2、严峻的民族危机和立宪救国的呼声12-14
    (二) 立宪运动的兴起14-21
        1、立宪派的努力与清廷改革态度的变化14-17
        2、立宪团体的不断涌现和立宪派的宣传启蒙17-21
二、立宪派的政治实践21-37
    (一) 立宪派和咨议局的选举21-29
        1、咨议局的筹办21-22
        2、咨议局的选举22-29
    (二) 国会请愿运动29-37
        1、第一次请愿29-31
        2、第二次请愿31-33
        3、第三次请愿33-35
        4、第四次请愿35-37
三、立宪派与革命派的共通共融37-48
    (一) 武昌起义前立宪派与革命派的关系37-42
        1、立宪派和革命派之间的思想论战37-40
        2、立宪派和革命派之间的矛盾与合作40-42
    (二) 立宪派政治立场的转化与辛亥革命的成功42-48
        1、立宪派在武昌起义前的转化42-44
        2、立宪派在辛亥革命中的作用44-48
结束语:立宪派与中国政治现代化48-50
参考文献50-52
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况52-53
致谢53
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