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从门罗主义到门户开放

—— 美国近代扩张政策的演变
From the Monroe’s Doctrine to the Open Door

作者: 专业:世界史 导师:赵振英 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 辽宁师范大学

Keywords

the Monroe Doctrine, Open Door, impact

        对外扩张一直是美国外交政策的实质和目的,但考虑到自身的实力,美国早期的外交政策带有孤立主义色彩,特别是十九世纪初,美国还是个相对弱小的新兴资本主义国家,刚取得独立战争的胜利,正是大力发展时期。经济和军事实力相对较弱,政治上,资产阶级政权处于建立和巩固阶段,所以外交政策上尽量避免卷入欧洲大国的纷争之中。但是由于美国同欧洲大陆的天然文化、经济联系,很难完全置身事外。十九世纪,西班牙在拉丁美洲许多地区的殖民地统治开始土崩瓦解,一系列国家获得独立。这些新兴的独立国家面临着英法等老牌殖民帝国从新控制的危险,美国害怕它们脱离西班牙后归入英法等国之手,从而影响美国在拉美经济的发展和扩张政策的实行,美国统治阶级对当时形势的有利的分析最终促成了门罗宣言的发表,即门罗主义的产生。门罗宣言大致包括三大原则:第一,不再殖民原则;第二,不干涉原则;第三,美洲体系原则。这些原则成为了美国对拉美扩张政策的基石。随着美国经济军事实力的不断发展,综合国力的渐渐提升,国内一些特殊利益集团已不再满足于对美洲大陆的扩张,他们需要更广阔的市场来刺激资本主义经济的更大发展。同时美国传统的文化观——“天命之说”也为美国的进一步扩张提供了理论依据。于是美国便假借“缅因号”事件,发动了蓄谋已久的美西战争,开始向太平洋远东地区的中国伸出他扩张的魔手,提出了机会均沾的门户开放政策,来扩大它的扩张步伐,从而确立了美国海外扩张政策。美国分别于1899年9月和1900年的7月颁布了两次门户开放的照会,一再强调美国无意占领中国的领土。相反,保护中国领土的完整和主权完整是门户开放政策实行的前提条件。美国提出“机会均等”,“利益均沾”的门户开放政策其实质是,美国想保护中国的市场对其开放的完整性,最大限度地实现美国在中国商业利益。从门罗主义到门户开放的演变,将美国的扩张政策从大陆转向了海外。门罗主义实现了美国独霸美洲的意图,完成了从“美洲是美洲人的美洲”到“美洲是美国的美洲”的转变。而门户开放则为列强在远东地区的利益分配建立了一个非正式的国际约束机制,在一定程度上缓解了列强之间的矛盾纠葛,稳定了远东的局势,保护了美国在华的最大商业利益。无论是门罗主义还是门户开放政策,都是服务于一个主题——扩张——追求美国国家利益最大化。最终确定了美国对世界的领导和霸主地位。
    Foreign expansion has been the essence and purpose of U.S. foreign policy .However, taking into account the its own strength ,early American foreign policy has the isolationism color. Particularly in the early nineteenth century,the United States is a relatively small emerging capitalist countries,just obtained the victory of the war of independence,it is time to develop.The economic and military strength was relatively weak.Politically, the bourgeois regime was in the establishment and consolidation phase,so, tried to avoid involvement in foreign policy disputes among the European powers.However, because the United States and the European continent’s natural cultural and economic Links,it is very difficult to completely stay out .In the nineteenth century, the Spanish colonial rule in many parts of Latin America, began to fall apart, a series of countries gained independence.These newly independent countries faced the new controls risk of the old colonial empires such as Britain and France .The United States’s fearing that they fell in the hands of Britain and France ,after sperating Spain ,thus affected the United States’s economic development and expansion of the policy implementation in latin America.The U.S. ruling class’s strongly analysizing the situation eventually led to the Monroe Declaration, that was the Monroe Doctrine generation.Monroe Doctrine broadly includes the following three principles:First,never implemented colonial principle; Second, non-interference principle; Third, the principle of inter-America’s system.These principles became the expansionist policy cornerstone of the United States to Latin America.With of the continuous development the U.S. economic and military strength and comprehensive national strength has gradually improved,some domestic special interest groups were no longer satisfied with the expansion of the America’s continent,they need a much broader market to stimulate greater development of the capitalist economy.At the same time the U.S. concept of traditional culture - "Destiny’s said," Provides a theoretical basis for further expansion for the United States.So,the U.S. will be under the guise of "Maine" incident to launch a long-planned Spanish-American War,and began to extend his expansion of the magic hands to Pacific Far East Chinese,presented an equality opportunity " open-door policy", to expand its pace of expansion, which established the U.S. policy of overseas expansion.The United States, respectively, in September 1899 and in July 1900, two open-door note,repeatedly emphasized that the United States has no intention of occupying Chinese territory.On the contrary, protecting China’s territorial integrity and sovereignty was a prerequisite for the implementation of open door policy.The United States’s puting forward the "equal opportunity", "equal behalf" open-door policy and its essence was,that the United States wanted to protect open China’s market for its integrity,and came ture the maximize business interests in China.The evolution of the expansionist policy from the Monroe Doctrine to the Open Door of the United States shifted from the mainland to overseas.The Monroe Doctrine achieve the intention of U.S. hegemony in the Americas,completed change from the "America is America for Americans" to "America is the United States of America,".The Open Door eastablished an informal international control mechanism for the allocated interest of foreign powers in the Far East and to protect U.S. commercial largest interests in China.Whether the Monroe Doctrine or the Open-Door policy,Is serving a theme - expansion - to maximize the pursuit of U.S. national interests.In the end,the United States on the world’s leadership and dominance was established.
        

从门罗主义到门户开放

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
引言8-11
一、门罗主义——美国拉美政策的基石11-17
    ㈠ 门罗主义产生的背景11-13
    ㈡ 门罗宣言的发表及内涵13-14
    ㈢ 门罗主义的发展14-17
二、美国扩张政策由“门罗主义”到“门户开放”的转变17-29
    ㈠ 从门罗主义到门户开放17-21
    ㈡ 经济和军事实力的发展21-23
    ㈢ 特殊利益集团的作用23-24
    ㈣ 国际形势的变化24-27
    ㈤ 门户开放政策的内容及实质27-29
三、门罗主义和门户开放政策的影响29-36
    ㈠ 对美国自身的刺激29-31
    ㈡ 对拉丁美洲的危害31-34
    ㈢ 对远东地区的格局形成的冲击34-36
结论36-38
参考文献38-41
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况41-42
致谢42
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