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清代东北地区物产变迁研究

Study on the Changes of the Northest Proverty in Qing Dynasty

作者: 专业:历史学 导师:谢景芳 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 辽宁师范大学

Keywords

Qing Dynasty, Northeast, Property, Changes

        清代东北地区是清朝始祖的发祥地,被清朝奉为“龙兴之地”,它的政治地位是历史上任何一朝都无可比拟的。在清朝以前,由于东北人口稀少,东北民族的生活方式与自然状态相协调,使得东北的物产资源保存完整、未受侵扰。清朝入关前,即努尔哈赤和皇太极的统治时期,是清朝社会、经济、文化各方面体制急剧转型期。由于战争需要大量物资、人口的增长需要扩大耕地、女真社会与周边先进民族商品交易日益频繁,东北地区的物产资源开始遭到大规模开采。而女真族的传统狩猎经济的根基并未摧毁,此时的开发尚处于初级阶段,东北地区仍然地旷人稀,山饶水美。当清朝举国迁都北京后,东北地区还一度呈现荒凉、破败的景象。随着政权稳固、经济上升、人口膨胀为特征的太平盛世的到来,耕地不足、自然灾害严重、再加上地主欺压、官员收刮,贫苦农民没有生路,只能冒险破禁,移民东北。一直奉行严厉封禁东北山林的清朝统治者也倍感无奈,在禁与弛之间来回摇摆。但是就是在如何实现人与自然和谐发展、东北物产资源可持续开发的问题上,清政府的政策失当,表现为:在全国经济大发展的背景下,东北地区资源丰富可以适当利用以促进东北经济发展、解决贫民生计之时,清朝却颁布封禁之策;而当清末外敌入侵东北开掘森林、矿产资源时,清政府没有坚决维护国土的完整,反而助纣为孽,为了一时之利而妥协强权、互相勾结、竭泽而渔,共同瓜分东北物产。以森林、人参、貂皮、东珠、海东青为代表的东北地区物产资源受到严重破坏导致其从数量到质量上都严重下降。另外,东北移民刀耕火种的粗略生产方式、城市交通膨胀式发展的需要也是东北物产恶性变迁、濒临灭绝的原因。东北地区如今面临着环境污染严重、野生动植物资源加速灭亡、经济发展滞后的种种问题不能不说与清朝有着直接的联系。探究清代东北物产变迁表现及变迁的人为因素—清朝对东北政策的得与失,对解决当今东北问题的症结不无帮助。借古鉴今,希望引起当今东北社会各界人士对东北物产的有效利用与合理保护意识。
    The northeast region is the birthplace of the ancestor of Qing Dynasty, regarded as a "land of LongXing". It has got the unparalleled political status in the history.In the Qing Dynasty before, due to sparsely populated ,the national way of life northeastern was in harmony with nature, the northeast property resources were intact, not intrusive. Before entering the internal border, that is the reign of Huang TaijiandNuerhaci,which is the rapid transition of the social, economic, and cultural aspects of the system of Qing .As the need for large supplies of war, population growth requires the expansion of cultivated land, The trading of goods, material resource between the Nv zhen society and the surrounding of the advanced nations have become increasingly frequent, the Property Resources of North-east has begin mining rapidly in a large-scale. The Nv zhen tribe’foundation of the traditional hunting economy was not destroyed, then it was still at the initial stage of development, the Northeast region who are still rich in the mountain and the river. When the Qing Dynasty moved to Beijing considered as the capital the whole country, the Northeast region also briefly present the scene.of desolate and being ruined. With the coming of strong political power, economic rise, population growth characterized by peace and prosperity, for the shortage of arable land, natural disasters, aggravated by oppressive landlords, officials close scrape, poor farmers do not way out but to risk breaking the ban on immigration northeast. the Qing dynasty rulers who pursued block of North-east forests Severely also feel helpless, Forest, ginseng, mink, East Pearl, Hai Dong Qing represented for the Northeast property resources had been seriously damaged which led the quality from quantity to have a serious decline. In addition, slash and burn roughly of the North-east migrants’production, needs of urban transport development for expansive property are the reasons for malignant change or extinction of the source. Northeast China is now facing serious environmental pollution, acceleration of the demise of wildlife resources, the problems of economic stagnation can not say that there isn’t a direct link with the Qing Dynasty. To explore the performances of the changes of the northeast property ,and the human factors - the gains and losses of the policy made by Qing forNorth-east really does good to solve the problem of today’s North-east.By history, we hope to attract today’s Northeast community’s awareness of the effective use of the Northeast and reasonable protection.
        

清代东北地区物产变迁研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5
引言8-11
一、清以前东北地区物产资源与少数民族的经济生活11-19
    (一) 清以前东北地区的物产资源11-13
    (二) 清以前东北地区物产资源与少数民族的经济生活13-16
        1、清以前东北地区的少数民族种类及演变13-14
        2、物产资源与游牧民族的生产、生活习俗14-15
        3、物产资源与渔猎民族的生产、生活习俗15-16
    (三) 物产资源的政治、经济价值16-19
        1、物产资源的政治价值16-17
        2、物产资源的经济价值17-19
二、清代东北地区的物产资源变迁19-38
    (一) 清入关前东北物产资源与女真族经济生活19-21
    (二) 清代前期东北地区的物产资源状况21-25
    (三) 清代后期东北地区的物产资源变迁25-38
        1、森林的砍伐与土地面积的增加25-28
        2、贡貂制度的确立实施与弛废28-32
        3、人参的采挖与资源的枯竭32-34
        4、东珠采捕与贡献的终止34-36
        5、海东青与清朝的围猎风俗36-38
三、物产变迁的原因探析38-50
    (一) 政策性的开放与开垦38-41
        1、清初的开放性政令38-39
        2、清中期的封禁之策39-40
        3、清末的放荒、招垦政策40-41
    (二) 移民的涌入与生产生活41-43
    (三) 外敌入侵与掠夺43-45
    (四) 城市的兴起与膨胀45-46
        1、城市的形成要素45
        2、城市发展的目的45-46
        3、城镇发展的后果46
    (五) 驿站与交通的发展46-50
结论50-51
参考文献51-53
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况53-54
致谢54
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