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先秦时期黄河水患述论

Yellow River Flood of Pre-Qin Period

作者: 专业:中国古代史 导师:闫明恕 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨师范大学

Keywords

pre-Qin period, the flood of Yellow River, The reason, improve the flood

        中国自古地大物博,河流遍布,在众多的河流中以长江和黄河为首,为中华民族的形成和发展起到了重要的作用,同时也为人类带来了巨大的灾难。由于社会发展条件的限制,整个先秦时期黄河水患的发生给人们带来了巨大的灾难,大量的田地、房屋被毁,人们流离失所、居无定处,水灾之后还有瘟疫和饥荒,百姓忍无可忍往往揭竿起义,发生社会动荡,神州大地出现了一幕幕人间惨剧。本文旨在通过对先秦时期黄河水患灾害史料的分析、总结,探讨夏、商、周三代黄河水患发生的具体原因,归纳出这一时期人们对于黄河的治理方法以及防灾、减灾措施,为今天的抗灾、减灾工作提供了借鉴和依据。本文共分为四章,即:第一章,先秦时期黄河水患研究述论。对目前国内关于夏商周三代黄河水患研究的现状进行了客观的论述,一方面掌握了国内关于此课题的研究成果,另一方面针对目前国内对于此课题研究的薄弱环节,为深入研究找到一个切入点。第二章,夏代治水。在本章中,通过侧重研究夏代初年的大禹治水发现:在气候、天体运动以及上古先民不当的改造自然活动的共同作用以及动植物化石的佐证下,中国在原始社会末期出现了黄河水灾泛滥问题。针对这一情况,上古先民采取了以堵为主的办法治理水灾没有取得成功,直到大禹采用疏导方法,黄河才最终回归河道。与此同时,上古先民在漫长的历史发展中还学会将房屋建于高地以躲避洪水侵袭,而国家则散发粮食、播种粮谷、教民自救,可以说这是整个原始社会末期的一次集体性活动,体现了当时最高的社会生产力。这场耗时长久的治水也加速了原始社会向奴隶社会过渡的进程,最终,大禹成功的治理了黄河水患也帮助他成功的建立了中国第一个世袭王朝——夏朝。第三章,商代治水。在本章中,通过考察殷商时期的考古资料、甲骨文资料和当时的气候水文特点、动植物化石发现:商代是一个各种自然灾害频发的朝代,这些自然灾害也引起了自然环境的恶化,而其中黄河水患对于商朝的影响不可谓不深远。历史上很多学者都认为商都之所以多次迁徙主要原因就是因为黄河水淹古都,通过考证我也发现:此时,众多的防灾、减灾措施成了这一时期防治黄河水患的主要工作。这些措施包括上面已经提到过的迁都,还有兴修水利沟洫、观测天象利用巫术救灾以及利用日常经验储粮备荒防灾等等。可以说,后世历朝历代针对黄河水患灾害的防灾、减灾措施几乎都是在商朝治理措施基础上的延续和发展,因此我对于殷商时期黄河水患的研究,今天仍有很大的探讨空间。第四章,周代治水。在本章中,我不仅考察了气候、植被等自然原因对于黄河水患的影响,同时还着重于社会原因对于黄河水患的影响,特别是战争对于自然生态环境的破坏而导致的黄河水灾。相对于前代,两周时期特别是春秋战国时期,天灾人祸频繁发生,伴随着社会生产力的发展,农耕和铁制工具的应用,各诸侯国为了维护统治,对于水利设施的积极建设,百姓对于黄河水患已经不同于过去的听天由命,此时人的主观能动性得到了极大的发挥。同时,经过了千百年来人民在农业生产中丰富经验的积累以及与天文学知识的结合,众多的天文历法已经开始应用于农业生产。各诸侯国对于黄河水患重要性的认识和采取的措施直接导致了他们在后来的争霸战争中能否取得决定性的胜利。由此看来,黄河水患的防灾减灾工程建设从另外一个方面促进了春秋战国时代的变法改革,最终在战国末年由秦国统一了整个中国。
    Since ancient times, there are rivers all over in China; especially two major river systems of the Yangtze River and Yellow River have created favorable conditions for flood disaster. Due to the limitations of social development, the flooding of the Yellow River has brought great disaster for people in the entire pre-Qin period. This article aims to discuss the specific reasons for the inundation of Yellow River in Xia, Shang and Chou dynasties through the analysis and summary of pre-Qin period historical data of the Yellow River flood disaster, and sum up management methods, disaster prevention and mitigation measures of Yellow River flood disaster which provides a reference and basis for today’s disaster mitigation. This paper has four chapters:The first chapter summarizes the research achievements of the natural calamities of pre-Qin period. On one hand, it can help us know the achievements in this field, on the other hand, point out the insufficient place in this field, so as to begin my study.The second chapter summarizes the Flood of Xia Dynasty. There was the Yellow River Flood under conditions of many factors in the late of Primitive Society. The ancient human being had taken each means to treat flood unsuccessfully, until Dayu used the dredging method to divert the. It accelerated the process of Primitive Society to Slave Society, and helped Dayu created Xia Dynasty, the first slavery dynasty of China.The third chapter summarizes the Flood of Shang dynasty. In this chapter, Shang is a dynasty with frequent natural disasters which have also caused the deterioration of the natural environment, especially the impact of the Yellow River flood for the Shang Dynasty is profound. Many scholars of history believe that the mainly reasons for many migration of the ancient capital is the ancient capital of the Shang flooded by the Yellow River, but we also found that there is no obvious measures of governance of the Yellow River flood in this period by textual research. Meanwhile, many disaster prevention and mitigation measures are major features of the Yellow River flood control in Shang Dynasty. These measures include the mentioned migration of the ancient capital, as well as constructing irrigation ditches, using witchcraft through observing astronomical phenomena, etc. That is, in past dynasties the disaster prevention and mitigation measures for the Yangtze River and Yellow River flood are almost the continuation and development on the basis of the Shang Dynasty. Therefore, we regard there is still much room for the Yellow River flood study of the Shang period.The fourth chapter summarizes the Flood of Zhou Dynasty. In this chapter, we investigated the natural causes such as climate, vegetation, etc, and social causes’effect on the Yellow River Flood, especially the war for the destruction of the natural ecological environment caused by the Yellow River Flood. Compared with the previous generation, the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties, particularly in the spring and autumn and Warring Stage Period occurred frequent natural disasters. Along with the development of Social Productivity, and iron tools in the application of farming, in order to safeguard the rule, the vassal state took active measures to construct the water conservancy facilities. The people’s attitude for the Yellow River flood was different from the past; people’s initiative had been a great play. In the Zhou Dynasty, a large number of astronomy calendars had been used in agricultural production. At the same time the Vassal State’s awareness of the importance of the Yellow River Flood and the measures taken directly led to their hegemony in the subsequent ability to win a decisive war victory. So the Yellow River Flood disaster prevention and mitigation from another aspect of the construction of the spring and autumn and Warring Stage Period of Reform for reform of the late Warring States Period by the state of Qin finally unified the whole of China.
        

先秦时期黄河水患述论

摘要6-8
ABSTRACT8-9
第一章 绪论10-16
    一、国内外研究现状10-12
    二、对黄河水灾的分类研究12-16
        (一) 有关夏代黄河的研究12-13
        (二) 有关商代黄河的研究13-14
        (三) 有关周代黄河的研究14-16
第二章 夏代治水16-25
    一、洪水成因16-22
        (一) 自然原因17-19
            1. 气候因素17-18
            2. 动物化石18-19
            3. 植物化石19
            4. 天体运动——九星地心汇聚19
        (二) 社会原因19-22
            1. 相对传说时代的人口增长20
            2. 上古时期的粗放式经营20-22
    二、夏代黄河的治理措施22-25
        (一) 躲避洪水22-23
        (二) 疏导黄河,治水除害23
        (三) 散发粮食,救济灾民23-24
        (四) 播种粮谷,教民自救24-25
第三章 商代治水25-34
    一、水患发生的原因25-28
        (一) 自然原因26-28
            1. 气候因素26-27
            2. 水文情况27
            3. 亚热带动植物化石27-28
    二、殷人的防灾、减灾措施28-34
        (一) 迁都28-30
        (二) 兴修水利,沟洫灌溉30-31
        (三) 观测天象、巫术救灾31-33
        (四) 储粮备荒和日常经验防灾33-34
第四章 两周时代的治水34-47
    一、水患成因34-41
        (一) 自然原因34-37
            1. 气候因素34-36
            2. 植被资源36-37
        (二) 社会原因37-41
            1. 农业生产对生态环境的影响37-38
            2. 战争对生态环境的破坏38-41
    二、两周时期黄河水患的治理措施41-47
        (一) 修建堤坝41-42
        (二) 兴修水利42-44
        (三) 天气预测和制定历法44-47
结语47-50
注释50-53
参考文献53-56
攻读硕士学位期间所发表的学术论文56-58
致谢58
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