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试论孝观念向封建孝道的转化

The Transformation from the Concept of Xiao to the Feudal Filial Piety

作者: 专业:中国古代史 导师:李世龙 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨师范大学

Keywords

the concept of Xiao, filial piety, construct and build, feudal ethics

        孝是人类基于自然性的血缘关系而生发出来的一种观念,作为一种观念它是原始的、零碎的、不系统的。以孔子为代表的儒家将孝的观念和行为加以概括、抽象并上升到理论,于是孝道应运而生。作为一种意识形态的孝道,伴着中国历史走向封建化的脚步,也开始了封建化的进程。孔子时期儒家孝道确立,儒家孝道的确立对传统孝道的发展具有导向作用。孟子丰富和发展了儒家孝道。主张人性本恶的荀子从礼的角度出发,认为孝道应重视礼义教化,荀子的孝道思想已具有封建孝道的色彩。《礼记》是众多典籍中,阐扬孝道最丰富的一本书。对孝行面面俱到的规范,使人之常情演变成硬性规定。这种礼成为孝道的外在体现和践履途径,后人对形式的过分追求反映了《礼记》规范下孝道的虚伪性。《孝经》通过对不同阶层孝行的不同规定,将孝道思想更加系统化和理论化。以教孝为切入点,移孝作忠,阐发了最具忠敬色彩的孝治思想。到这时,伦理与政治紧密结合,孝道思想的转构在理论上基本完成。“三纲”学说把神学迷信融入到孝道当中,深化了前人的孝道观。在“三纲”中把君臣、父子等人身依附关系神秘化、神圣化,使孝道以纲常名教的形式被确定下来。孝道由家庭伦理扩展为社会伦理、政治伦理,孝与忠相辅相成,成为封建道德体系的核心。至此,孝道的内容发生了重大转变,孝道成为助长封建统治的工具,标志其向封建孝道转化在理论上的最终完成。孝道的封建化对后世产生了深远的影响。通过对孝道思想不同历史时期结构特点的考察,深入探究在这一演变过程中,那些被历代所认同而积淀下来并在今天的现实生活中仍然发挥重要作用的部分,使孝道思想上承中华民族悠久的文化传统,下接当代和谐社会的道德建设。
    The concept of Xiao is based on nature of human kinship. As a concept it is original, spontaneous, fragmentary and piecemeal. Confucianism represented by Confucius generalize the concept and behavior of Xiao, abstract and up to the theory, so filial piety emerged. As an ideology of filial piety begins the process of feudalism accompanied by Chinese history into feudal.Confucian filial piety establishes during Confucius period. It played a guidance role to the development of traditional filial piety. Mencius enriched and developed the Confucian filial piety. Xunzi advocated evil human nature, from the view of the ceremony, that filial piety should pay attention to propriety and justice enlightenment. The idea of Xunzi on filial piety has been a feudal color."The Book of Rites" is the richest one of many classics about extolling filial piety. Over-pursuit the external expression of filial piety reflects the hypocrisy of feudal filial piety. "The Book of Filial Piety" by different provisions in different sectors of filial piety, became the piety more systematic and theoretical. Teaching filial piety as the starting point for shifting filial loyalty, elucidates the most loyalty and respect of Filial Piety color ideas. By this time, the Confucian filial piety had already been abundant complete on theory, had realized the close combination of politics and ethic.The theory of "three cardinal guides" puts the theology and superstition into the filial piety which deepened the filial piety of predecessors. Filial piety becomes the social ethics and political ethics by the expansion of family ethics, and becomes the core of the Feudal system. Thus, the contents of filial piety have undergone major changes,, filial piety as a tool for contributing to the feudal rule, marking its transformation in the theory of feudal filial piety final complete. Feudalization of filial piety has a profound influence on later generations.
        

试论孝观念向封建孝道的转化

摘要6-7
Abstract7
第一章 绪论8-14
    一、本研究课题的学术背景及其理论与实际意义8
    二、国内外文献综述8-12
    三、相关领域的研究进展及成果、存在的不足或待深入研究的问题12-13
    四、本课题的来源及主要研究内容13-14
第二章 传统孝观念的形成和特点14-18
    一、学术界对传统孝观念确立时间的研究14-15
    二、孝的内涵15
    三、殷商和西周孝观念的主要特点15-16
    四、孝与孝道的区别16-18
第三章 先秦儒家的孝道思想18-27
    一、孔子平实的孝道观18-21
        (一) 孔子孝道观的内容18-21
        (二) 孔子孝道思想的影响21
    二、孟子对儒家孝道的丰富和发展21-24
        (一) 亲亲原则的建立22-23
        (二) 孝悌地位的提升23
        (三) 其它23-24
    三、荀子具有封建色彩的孝道思想24-27
        (一) 纳孝入礼24-25
        (二) 从义不从父25
        (三) 重隆君、轻孝父25-27
第四章 封建孝道的最终确立27-45
    一、《礼记》规范下的孝道27-33
        (一) 礼与孝道的关系27-28
        (二) 《礼记》规范下的孝道28-33
    二、《孝经》中孝道思想的转构33-36
        (一) 由孝亲上升到以忠君为核心的孝治33-35
        (二) 孝治的实现与成就35-36
    三、孝观念向封建孝道转化的最终完成36-40
        (一) 韩非的"三事"思想36-38
        (二) "三纲"理论的提出38-40
    四、对后世的影响40-45
        (一) 孝道的消极影响40-42
        (二) 孝道中的积极因素42-45
结语45-47
注释47-49
参考文献49-52
攻读硕士学位期间所发表的学术论文52-54
致谢54
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