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古史辨派对《史记》中先秦史料评判之研究

Yigupai Studys for "Historical Records" in the Pre-historical Evaluation Research

作者: 专业:历史文献学 导师:栾继生 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨师范大学

Keywords

Yigupai "Historical Records ", Sima Qian

        古史辨派是“五四”运动后出现的,以辨伪疑古为宗旨,研究史学和经学的学术流派,顾颉刚是其代表人物。自二十世纪二十年代起,该学派遍考古史、古书,提出了著名的“层累地造成的中国古史”观,对中国传统的“盘古开天地”“三皇五帝”的古史系统提出了质疑,并且系统地考辨了孔子与六经的关系、老子其人其书的存在与否、今古文经学等问题。本文主要从三部分论述古史辨派对《史记》之评判:第一部分论述古史辨派对《史记》三代以上古史史料真伪性之评判,主要围绕着古史辨派的“东周以上无历史”说,孔子与《六经》的关系、老子其人其书等三方面进行研究。第二部分从古史辨派对《史记》写作手法及史料价值之评判入手,主要围绕着古史辨派批判司马迁以《六经》为标准本,采用层累、罗列、堆砌、“整齐故事”的方法处理史料及批判《史记》史料价值等三方面进行研究。第三部分论述古史辨派使用《史记》,主要围绕着古史辨派使用《史记》支持其论点,赞扬司马迁辨伪精神为其辨伪疑古服务,使用《史记》研究今古文经学等三方面进行研究。本文对古史辨派所评判的《史记》中的材料进行了系统的文献考察,仔细研究相关著述,对史料进行甄别筛选,使问题有了较清晰的轮廓、研究建立在较为坚实的文献资料基础之上。关于《史记》和古史辨派的史学思想、写作手法、史学理论及史料价值的研究有很多,但将二者结合起来研究的却极少。因此,本文从古史辨派对《史记》中的材料评判这一角度进行研究,并得出了以下结论:古史辨派的“东周以上无历史”说、否认三代以上古史的研究结论有失偏颇;孔子与《六经》存在关系;老子其人其书存在;《六经》具有极高的史料价值;古史辨派的“刘歆伪造群经”说不正确等。总之,古史辨派对《史记》中先秦史料的研究成果显著,但是由于其无限度地使用“默证法”和“假设法”,以及过多地依赖于文籍的记载、“以古书证古书”、未与考古学相结合等原因致其疑古过甚:例如,将中国历史缩短了二三千年,否定孔子与《六经》的关系,否定老子其人其书的存在,提出“刘歆伪造群经”说等。
    Yigupai has been appeared after the movement of may fourth, which are distinguishing suspicion for the purpose of historical research and jingxue by the Academic Schools,Gu is its representatives. Since the 1920s, the school of history, archaeology and ancient times, put forward the famous "layer tired to cause the Chinese ancient history" concept, which overturned the traditional Chinese "the dawn of Heaven and Earth", "Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors" of ancient systems, and on the relationship of Confucius and the six、Laozi and his books, and other classics of the system. This article discusses the main part from Yigupai to judging the“Historical Records”: The first part discusses the Ancient History Party "Historical Records" for more than three generations of the authenticity of ancient historical materials evaluation, centered around the Ancient History group which is "no history of Eastern Zhou Dynasty," confucius and the relationship between the Six Classics、Laozi and his books and other study on three aspects. The second part from yigupai on phrases writing techniques and historical value of the start of the evaluation, The main criticism of Sima Qian around the yigupai of "Six" as the standard layer tired of this and used, list, piled, "neat story," historical and critical approach to "Historical Records" of historical value. The third part discusses yigupai using phrases aspects, mainly used to send around Ancient History, "Historical Records" in support of its argument, praise the spirit of ancient Sima Qian as their distinguishing the suspition of ancient service, using the "Historical Records" of Classical Learning and so on.Because the basic historical fragmented and lack of related works, so in this paper we use literature and induction analysis methods. First of all on the yigupai the evaluation of phrases related materials for the literature review of the system, carefully related to writing, screening of the historical data for the screening, and making the problem with a clearer outline, research based on a more solid basis of the literature.On the "Historical Records" and Ancient History School of Historical Thought, writing style, historical theory and historical value of many, but combine the two studies are few and far. Therefore, the Ancient History recearches one sides of the jugding of "Historical Records" relevant materials. Drew the conclusions below: the "no history of Eastern Zhou Dynasty" of Yigupai denying the research conclusion of ancient history about three generations above.; Confucius relates the "Six Classics"; there exists Lao Tzu and his books ;"Six Classics" has a very high historical value; "Xin forged by the group" of Yigupai that is incorrect, etc. In short, Yigupai studys for“Historical Records”in the pre-historical research results significantly, but there is still a bias.
        

古史辨派对《史记》中先秦史料评判之研究

摘要6-7
Abstract7-8
第一章 绪论9-12
    一、古史辨派的形成9-10
    二、古史辨派对《史记》中先秦史料评判之研究的历史和现状10-11
    三、本文研究的主要问题11-12
第二章 古史辨派对《史记》三代以上古史史料真伪评判之研究12-24
    一、“东周以上无历史”说12-16
        (一) 关于“三皇五帝”的传说12-14
        (二) 夏王朝是否存在14-16
    二、孔子与《六经》的关系16-21
        (一) 孔子与《诗经》的关系16-17
        (二) 孔子与《书》的关系17-18
        (三) 孔子与《礼》的关系18
        (四) 孔子与《易》的关系18-19
        (五) 孔子与《春秋》异传的关系19-21
    三、老子其人其书21-24
        (一) 老子其人21-22
        (二) 老子其书22-24
第三章 古史辨派对《史记》写作手法与史料价值之批判24-32
    一、古史辨派批判司马迁“考信于六艺”的治史原则24-26
        (一) 司马迁“考信于六艺”的治史原则24-25
        (二) 古史辨派批判《六经》的史料价值25-26
    二、古史辨派批判司马迁采取罗列、堆砌、“整齐故事”的方法处理史料26-32
        (一) 罗列、堆砌的方法26-27
        (二) “整齐故事”的写作手法27-32
第四章 古史辨派对《史记》的使用32-44
    一、古史辨派使用《史记》的史料支持其论点32-36
        (一) 使用《史记》考证古书32-34
        (二) 使用《史记》考证古人34-35
        (三) 使用《史记》考证古史35-36
    二、古史辨派赞扬司马迁的辨伪精神以为其辨伪疑古服务36-37
    三、古史辨派使用《史记》研究今古文经学37-44
        (一) “刘歆伪造群经”说38-39
        (二) 古史辨派批判后人将《书序》及《左传》伪窜入《史记》39-44
结论44-45
注释45-48
参考文献48-51
攻读硕士学位期间所发表的论文51-53
致谢53
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