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论冷战期间日本对华政策中的“政经分离”原则(1952-1964)

作者: 专业:世界史 导师:纪胜利 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨师范大学

Keywords

Cold War, Japan, political and economic isolation

        从旧金山和约签订到1972年中日邦交正常化之前,日本政府对华一直奉行“政经分离”原则。所谓政经分离,就是一方面追随美国承认台湾国民政府为中国的法定政府;另一面与大陆进行民间经贸往来。政经分离这一概念有广义与狭义之分,广义的政经分离原则是指两国虽然在法律上相互没有建立外交关系,但却维持一定经济文化上的联系。二者虽互不承认,但是可以在经济和文化领域进行政府间的交流,或者签订政府间协定,甚至进行大使级别的会谈;狭义方面是指,不仅政治与经济要分开处理,而且在进行经济和文化交涉活动时也要由民间组织来处理,不能与政府或者与政府有关的组织发生关系。在冷战期间,日本反复使用对华“政经分离”原则。这主要是由日本领导人的政治理念及对政经分离的认识决定的,时而是广义上的,时而是狭义上的。而中国政府所要求的是广义上的政经分离。这样使得中日民间贸易协定一波三折。本文共分四部分,除涉及日本对华关系外,还涉及了美日关系、日台关系及日本政府内部变化。而且从某种意义上说,本文还从美国对中国的冷战政策的国际大环境来看日本对华的政经分离。第一部分主要分析了“政经分离”产生的国际背景,冷战波及到东亚后使得日本与中国分属不同的阵营。吉田茂为了实现日本的独立,不得不搁置与中国建立政治关系的愿望而服从美国承认台湾。但吉田并没有放弃与中国大陆进行经贸往来的夙愿。第二部分主要阐述了“政经分离”的初步实践及挫折。首先,讨论了反吉田派对吉田这一外交理念的继承,并将其初步实施以实现中日两国的经贸往来,其中以岸信介内阁为主;其次,探讨政经分离形式受挫的原因,主要是在于彼此的外交定位不同,进而导致两国对“政经分离”认识的争议,最终使得仅有的一点经济联系被迫中断。第三部分论述的是池田首相吸取岸信介内阁的教训,把日本对内对外战略引向经济发展领域。他还及时调整日本对华关系,重开中日间的民间经贸往来,把政经分离发展为具有准政府性质,即广义上政经分离。但是此举遭到台湾与美国的反对,尤其是台湾不遗余力地从列岛境内外向日本政府施压,使得政经分离处于风雨飘摇状态。第四部分主要对“政经分离”深层次方面的认识,包括两方面:一是日本对华实行政经分离是与美国对日政策分不开的。不仅如此,美国还千方百计向日本施压,破坏中日间的经贸往来;另一方面是日本以政经分离为手段,分裂台湾。其方法就是政治上承认台湾,经济上与大陆往来。这样可以利用这个原则既要挟台湾又要挟大陆,以达到将台湾分裂出中国的目的。
    From the sign of San Francisco Peace Treaty to the normalization of diplomatic relations in 1972, before the Government of Japan to China has been pursuing a "political and economic separation" principle. The so-called political and economic isolation, that is, on the one hand following the U.S. recognition of Taiwan as China’s official national government administration; the other side’s non-governmental economic and trade exchanges with the mainland. Political and economic separation of the concept of broad and narrow sense, the broad principles of political and economic isolation means between the two countries although there is no law on the establishment of diplomatic relations, but maintain a certain economic and cultural connections. Although the two do not recognize each other, but can the economic and cultural exchanges between the government area, or the signing of intergovernmental agreements, or even ambassador-level talks; narrow aspect is not only to separate politics and economics, and carrying out economic and cultural activities should be negotiated by the civil society organizations to deal with, not with the government or government-related organizations have relations. During the Cold War, China, Japan, repeated use of "political and economic separation" principle. This is because the Japanese leader’s political philosophy and understanding of the political and economic separation of the decision. Requested by the Chinese Government is a broad political and economic isolation. This makes the twists and turns in the Japanese trade agreements.This dissertation is divided into four parts, concerning relations with China, Japan, also involving a US-Japan relations, Japan-Taiwan relations and the Japanese government changed. In a sense, this is a change in U.S. policy toward China from the perspective of Japan’s political and economic isolation.The first part of the political and economic isolation resulting from the international background of the Cold War spread to East Asia, Japan and China after making belong to different camps. Shigeru Yoshida of Japan in order to achieve independence, had to shelve political relations with China to obey the wishes of the U.S. recognition of Taiwan. But Yoshida did not give up economic and trade exchanges with China’s long-cherished wish.The second part described the preliminary practice of political and economic isolation and frustration. First, the parties discussed the anti-Yoshida Yoshida inherited this foreign concept, and its initial implementation to achieve the economic and trade exchanges between China and Japan, of which the main Kishi’s Cabinet; Secondly, we explore the political and economic isolation Xingshi frustrated because the main that is different from each other’s diplomatic orientation, which led to two of the "political and economic isolation," understand the controversy, ultimately making the little economic ties to a halt.The third part discusses the Ikeda Cabinet of Prime Minister Kishi learned the lessons of Japan’s internal and external strategies to lead economic development. He also promptly adjust its relations with China, Japan, re-opened in the day of the civil economic and trade exchanges, the separation of political and economic development as a quasi-governmental nature, that is a broad political and economic isolation. But such a move opposed by Taiwan and the United States, especially in Taiwan, not to spare the Japanese from the islands within the outward pressure on the government to make political and economic isolation in a precarious state.The fourth part of the political and economic separation of deep awareness, including two aspects: First, Japan’s real and the U.S. administration by the separation is inseparable from the Japanese policy toward China. Not only that, the United States do everything possible to put pressure on Japan to undermine Sino-Japanese economic and trade exchanges; the other hand, Japan’s political and economic isolation as a means to split Taiwan. The method is the political recognition of Taiwan’s economic exchanges with the mainland. This principle can be used to blackmail both the mainland and Taiwan has been coerced to achieve the objective of Taiwan split from China.
        

论冷战期间日本对华政策中的“政经分离”原则(1952-1964)

摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
第一章 绪论8-12
    一、研究概况8-11
    二、研究思路和方法11-12
第二章 日本对中国“政经分离”的构想12-21
    一、战后初期“政经分离”形成的国际环境12-16
    二、吉田茂的出访及对中日关系的设想16-21
第三章 “政经分离”的初步实施及挫折21-35
    一、反吉田派对“政经分离”的继承21-26
    二、“政经分离”模式的登场26-33
    三、日台关系的全面确立33-35
第四章 “政经分离”的恢复及曲折发展35-48
    一、日本外交当局的对华调整案35-38
    二、“政经分离”的实施38-44
    三、“政经分离”模式的动摇44-48
第五章 对“政经分离”的认识48-58
    一、“政经分离”与美国的压力48-52
    二、“政经分离”与两个中国52-58
结论58-61
注释61-65
参考文献65-67
攻读硕士学位期间发表的学术论文67-69
致谢69
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