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万历朝的市民运动

Analysis on Silver Honesty System of Qing Dynnasty

作者: 专业:中国古代史 导师:邓天红 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨师范大学

Keywords

Wanli Dynasty, public campaign, mine tax

        明朝中后期,封建社会内部的商品经济空前活跃,为了适应这种变化,明万历神宗采取了一系列政治、经济的措施,以求维护和巩固其统治,客观上刺激了一组新兴力量——市民阶级的兴起,明末万历朝时期的市民阶层与前朝比较都有许多新的时代特点:总体人数剧增,除小商贩等城市下层群众之外融入了大商人、士大夫等阶层。明神宗通过派遣大批宦官充当矿税监,到各地网罗金银财富,成为市民运动兴起的直接原因。这对我们认识明王朝衰亡的内在根源,有一定的借鉴作用。明代中后期,工商业、手工业的发展,城市化过程的加快,是市民阶层形成的重要客观因素。人们的观念在商品经济的冲击下逐步发生着变化,他们的活动范围也逐步突破了纯粹商业经营的界限,开始在更广阔的社会生活领域发生着重要的作用,如参与政治活动。明末万历朝,由于正课不足,国用大匮,加上万历神宗个人贪财奢侈的个性,矿税因此大兴。矿监税使对人民肆意地搜刮掠夺,以士大夫、商人、手工业者组成的市民团体在全国范围内兴起了市民运动,其影响深远。市民运动的直接结果,打击了阉党的暴行,在一定程度上动摇了封建统治的政权,保护了商品经济和人民的切身利益,减少了资本主义萌芽所受到的摧残。本人欲从明末政局入手,侧重分析,在专制主义的社会背景下,在皇权进一步加强的形势下,发起市民运动的社会背景及其主要原因,并进一步探讨市民运动得以发起的客观因素。整体来看,研究明末市民运动有利于我们更深刻地了解清朝乃至近现代的市民运动。
    The late Ming Dynasty, the feudal society unprecedented activity within the commodity economy, in order to adapt to this change, the Ming Emperor Wanli Emperor adopted a series of political and economic measures aimed to maintain and consolidate its rule, and objectively to stimulate a group of new power --burgher class, late Ming dynasty million people during the class compared with the former era has many new features: dramatic increase in the overall number, in addition to small traders and other cities outside of the lower people into the big merchants, such as class scholar .Wanli Emperor by sending a large number of eunuchs as tax supervisor ore, gold, silver and goods, gathered around to become the direct cause of the rise of the public struggle for us to understand the underlying causes of the decline of the Ming Dynasty, there is some reference.The late Ming Dynasty, business, handicraft development, speeding up the urbanization process is the formation of the middle class an important objective factors. Mindset of the people in the commodity economy gradually is changing under the impact, the scope of their activities have gradually exceeded the limits of a purely commercial operation began in the broader areas of social life took place an important role, such as participation in political activities. Mine Supervisor tax to the people plundered indiscriminately plunder, to scholar-officials, merchants, craftsmen, students who formed part of the rise of civic groups across the country the public campaign, the far-reaching. Direct result of the public campaign against the illicit manipulation to plunder and eunuch parties atrocities, to a certain extent, undermine the rule of the feudal regime, the protection of the commodity economy and the vital interests of the people, reducing the seeds of capitalism have been crushed. This article will start from the late Ming Council, focusing on analysis in the context of an authoritarian society, in the imperial power to further strengthen the situation, the social background of the struggle .
        

万历朝的市民运动

摘要6-7
Abstract7
第一章 绪论8-13
    一、市民阶层概念的讨论8-9
    二、市民运动问题的研究现状9-12
    三、学术价值及应用前景12-13
第二章 万历朝市民运动的政治背景13-21
    一、万历神宗的腐朽与矿税大兴的原因13-15
    二、矿监税使的主要代表15-17
    三、监税使的搜刮方式17-19
    四、矿监税使的影响19-21
第三章 市民运动的经济基础21-26
    一、市镇经济的发展21-22
    二、商业的繁荣22-23
    三、城市的繁荣23-24
    四、其他产业的发展24-26
第四章 市民阶层的形成与组成26-30
    一、市民阶层的形成与壮大26-27
    二、市民运动的组成27-30
        (一) 市民运动的缘起27-28
        (二) 市民运动的成员28-30
第五章 市民运动的特点及评价30-37
    一、市民运动的特点30-32
        (一) 发动时间最早30-31
        (二) 持续时间最长31
        (三) 影响最为深远31-32
    二、市民运动的影响及意义32-37
        (一) 市民运动对明末社会的影响32-34
        (二) 对清前期市民运动的影响34-35
        (三) 积极意义35-36
        (四) 局限性36-37
结论37-38
注释38-42
参考文献42-46
攻读硕士学位期间所发表的学术论文46-48
致谢48
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