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京汉铁路早期经营研究(1895-1912年)

A Study on Early Management of Beijing-Hankow Railway (1895-1912)

作者: 专业:中国近现代史 导师:隋丽娟 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨师范大学

Keywords

Late Qing Dynasty, Beijing-Hankow railway, management, modernization

        京汉铁路是晚清政府为图自强、实现近代化而兴筑的一条纵贯南北的大干线。甲午战后,清政府已充分认识到铁路对于国家军事、经济的重要性。在经历了十九世纪七、八十年代有关铁路问题的论争后,对日战争的惨败已让国人认识到铁路对于国家近代化具有不可忽视的作用,京汉铁路即在此时应运修筑。清末有系统地修筑铁路由此而始。京汉铁路的修建开晚清大规模筑路之先河,成为日后铁路修筑借款模式之嚆矢。京汉铁路的经营状况在晚清时期较为良好,成为除京奉铁路外另一条利润丰厚的铁路,其线路维护、路员管理等方面也日臻完善。京汉路在晚清的成功运营在一定程度上降低了清政府借债筑路的利权丧失程度,给沿线经济社会发展变迁注入了新的活力。虽然京汉铁路并没有实现清政府富国强民的愿望,其经营也存在着一些问题,但是京汉铁路的运营方法、经营理念对于当时铁路经营仍具有积极意义,其中一些珍贵的启示也值得借鉴于今。本文主要探讨甲午战后清政府主动兴修的第一条纵贯南北的大铁路——京汉铁路的早期经营业务(1895-1912年)。试图在铺陈晚清铁路发展的轨迹后,分析该路在营业收支、路务管理等方面的运营情况。反思甲午战后,国势日衰的背景下,京汉铁路在对于清末社会近代化进程发挥了怎样的作用。
    Beijing-Hankow railway is a main line which go through the south and north china. It was built by Late Qing Dynasty to achieve self-reliance and modernization. After Sino-Japanese War, Qing government has fully realized the importance of railway for the national military and economic. Being through the argument about railway in 70-80s in 19th century, a heavy defeat made people recognizing that railway has a great effect to the modernization which can not be ignored. Beijing-Hankow railway was built at this right time. Building railway systematically in Qing Dynasty was beginning.The construction of Beijing-Hankow railway was the start of building railroad on a large scale in Qing Dynasty, which became the initial loan model to build a railroad. Beijing-Hankow railway’s operating conditions was well in Late Qing Dynasty, and it was one of the most lucrative railways except Jingfeng railway. Its line maintained and personal management is gradually perfect. Beijing-Hankow railway’s successful operation lowers the degree of right in some extent which cost by loaning the money from the powers. It also gives the area along the railway a new opportunity to develop economic and society. Beijing-Hankow railway did not achieve the goal to make Late Qing Dynasty become wealth and powerful, it also has some problems with management, but Beijing-Hankow railway’s management methods and concepts has positive side for all the railway in Qing Dynasty. Some of precious enlightenment still has reference for nowadays.This paper is mainly investigate the early management of Beijing-Hankow railway’s operate conditions from the year 1895 to 1912, trying to state the development of Late Qing Dynasty railway, analysis its operating revenue and railway works etc, reflect what effect does Beijing-Hankow railway take in the process of modernization in Late Qing Dynasty whose country situation is declined.
        

京汉铁路早期经营研究(1895-1912年)

摘要6-7
ABSTRACT7
第一章 绪论8-14
    一、问题的提出8-9
    二、学术史回顾9-12
    三、研究对象的界定与说明12
    四、本课题研究的基本思路及主要研究内容12-14
第二章 京汉铁路修筑的社会因素14-20
    一、晚清铁路发展的曲折轨迹14-16
        (一) 铁路观念的艰难转变14-15
        (二) 作为甲午战后筑路高潮序曲的京汉铁路之修筑15-16
    二、京汉铁路的利权收回与相关概况16-20
第三章 京汉铁路早期营运状况研究20-26
    一、京汉铁路营运收支分析20-23
    二、京汉铁路运价政策23-26
第四章 京汉铁路沿线维护与人员管理26-31
    一、京汉铁路沿线维护与经营26-28
    二、京汉铁路内部管理28-31
        (一) 人事管理28-29
        (二) 路务管理29-31
第五章 京汉铁路经营业绩检讨31-42
    一、京汉铁路运营效能体现31-38
        (一) 京汉铁路经营绩效分析31-32
        (二) 京汉铁路与社会新气象32-34
        (三) 京汉铁路与沿线社会发展34-38
    二、京汉铁路发展的窒碍因素38-40
    三、对京汉铁路发展模式的思考40-42
结论42-44
注释44-48
参考文献48-54
攻读硕士学位期间所发表的学术论文54-56
致谢56
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