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英语限定词ANY和SOME的数与肯定程度

—— 基于Brown和WECCL语料库的对比分析
Number and Assertiveness of English Determiners ANY and SOME

作者: 专业:外国语言学与应用语言学 导师:曹井香 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

English Determiner, Assertiveness, Number, Corpora, ANY, SOME

        自从英语限定词词类提出至今,对其概念、分类、与名词的关系等方面的研究一直备受语法界关注,英语限定词的具体理解和使用也一直是英语学习的难点之一。本文基于语料库以限定词ANY和SOME为例对限定词的肯定程度及其所修饰名词的数进行详细研究,以期对中国大学英语学习者了解本族语者对限定词ANY和SOME的实际使用情况有所帮助。ANY和SOME是英语限定词中两个典型例子。本文梳理了英语限定词相关理论,参考了夸克语法(Quirk等,1985),柯林斯、牛津等英语词典对这对限定词的解释,对照了国内英语语法教材,发现了一些不一致的说法。本文利用WordSmith Tools在美国英语Brown语料库中对两个词分别进行检索获取语料数据,对数据进行统计分析和分类归纳,总结ANY和SOME的用法,发现美国英语对ANY和SOME的选用与传统语法所描述的并不完全一致。又对中国学生英语口笔语语料库的子语料库WECCL(中国学生英语笔语语料库)的检索统计分析发现中国英语学习者基本遵从传统语法的规定。主要差异表现在选用ANY的句式和SOME所修饰名词的数。作者认为这种差异可能是因为学习者的语法知识主要来源于教学语法规定,并在实际应用中刻意遵守,而非来源于真实语言的习得。对实例深入分析讨论发现中国学习者可能混淆了限定词本身的肯定程度和句子句式的肯定或否定,而对SOME的使用可能受其中文翻译“一些”的影响,侧重了量的含义,而忽略了存在的含义。希望研究结果能用于修订大、中、小英语教学语法中对ANY和SOME的用法说明,使之更加符合对实际语料的描述,从而提高学习者的英语理解和使用水平。
    Since the category of Determiner was put forward, its definition, classification and their relations with nouns have been attracting grammarians’interests. The Number and Assertiveness of English Determiners are always one of the difficulties for Chinese EFL learners. This paper reports a corpus-based contrastive study on English determiners ANY and SOME.ANY and SOME are two typical English Determiners. In the process of reviewing theories on English determiners, Quirk et al (1985), the latest editions of Collins and Oxford dictionaries, some discrepancies are discovered. With Wordsmith Tools, we analyzed concordances of ANY and SOME from the Brown corpus and found that the actual distribution of ANY and SOME in the aspect of Number and Assertiveness does not very well agree with description of the traditional school grammar. The survey of---the written part of Spoken and Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners (the WECCL) reports that the Chinese EFL learners observe the school grammar very well, and differ significantly from American English. The most striking differences lie in the sentence forms with ANY and the Number of nouns modified by SOME.The differences might be attributed to the fact that Foreign Language Learners’grammar awareness is not acquired by the exposition to natural utterances, but mostly learnt from traditional grammar books and they usually faithfully observe the grammar rules stipulated in the grammar books or dictionaries. Further discussions with concordances suggest that Chinese EFL learners might be confused about the assertiveness of the determiners and the assertiveness of the sentences and influenced by its Chinese usual equivalents“一些”,which implies quantity or amount, while overlooking its sense of "existence".The findings may help modify description of ANY and SOME in the English School grammar and make it more like the actual distribution of ANY and SOME in the Native Speaker’s corpus.
        

英语限定词ANY和SOME的数与肯定程度

摘要4-5
Abstract5
1 Introduction8-11
    1.1 Background of the current research8-9
    1.2 The research questions and significance9-10
    1.3 Organization of the research10-11
2 Literature Review11-26
    2.1 Corpus and Corpus linguistics11-14
        2.1.1 Corpus11-13
        2.1.2 Corpus linguistics13-14
    2.2 Theoretical background14-18
        2.2.1 Contrastive Analysis Theory15-16
        2.2.2 Interlanguage16-18
    2.3 Definitions18-22
        2.3.1 Determiner18-20
        2.3.2 Assertiveness20-21
        2.3.3 Count noun; Noncount noun21-22
    2.4 Previous studies on ANY and SOME22-26
        2.4.1 Descriptions in dictionaries and grammar books22-24
        2.4.2 Recent publications on the use of ANY and SOME24-26
3 Methodology26-34
    3.1 Corpus-based approach26-27
    3.2 Corpora selection27-28
        3.2.1 Brown Corpus27-28
        3.2.2 WECCL Corpus28
    3.3 Instruments28-30
        3.3.1 WordSmith Tools28-29
        3.3.2 Chi-square test in SPSS29-30
    3.4 Research procedure30-34
4 Findings and Analyses34-42
    4.1 Overall frequencies of ANY and SOME between Brown and WECCL34-36
        4.1.1 Comparison of overall frequency of ANY34-35
        4.1.2 Comparison of overall frequency of SOME35-36
    4.2 Analyses of usage rules of ANY and SOME in BROWN and WECCL36-42
        4.2.1 Analysis of use of ANY in Brown and WECCL36-39
            4.2.1.1 Sentence form37-39
            4.2.1.2 Co-occurring nouns in terms of Number39
        4.2.2 Analysis of use of SOME in Brown and WECCL39-42
            4.2.2.1 Sentence form39-40
            4.2.2.2 Co-occurring nouns in terms of Number40-42
5 Discussion42-48
    5.1 Number42-43
    5.2 Assertiveness43-48
        5.2.1 ANY43-45
        5.2.2 SOME45-48
6 Conclusions48-52
    6.1 Major findings48-49
    6.2 Pedagogical implications49-50
    6.3 Limitation and suggestions for future research50-52
Bibliography52-55
Publications during MA Study55-56
Acknowledgements56-58
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