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亨利·詹姆斯的国际主题在《黛西·米勒》中的表现

Henry James’ International Theme and Its Expression in Daisy Miller

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:秦明利 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Henry James, International Theme, development, Daisy Miller, Cultural Conflict

        亨利·詹姆斯(Henry James,1843-1916)是19世纪伟大的小说家,戏剧家和文艺理论家。在英美文学史上具有十分重要的地位.在其漫长的创作生涯中,开创了“国际主题”小说,即以大西洋两岸欧美之间文化道德的交会与碰撞为背景的小说。本论文通过对亨利·詹姆斯的“国际主题”小说的纵览和梳理,指出“国际主题”的焦点是发展变化的,而非一成不变的。詹姆斯的早期代表作《黛西·米勒》即是一本“国际主题”小说,主要表现了欧美文化的巨大差异及其间冲突的不可调和性。本论文共分五章。第一章简要介绍了亨利·詹姆斯的创作生涯及其作品。第二章对国内外对于詹姆斯及其作品、国际主题和《黛西·米勒》的研究分别进行了分析整理。指出大多数的研究者并未认识到詹姆斯“国际主题”的焦点的变化发展,将其看为一成不变的,或只讨论某一时期作品的国际主题,或局限于分析某一篇小说中国际主题的表现,而缺乏对于国际主题焦点发展变化的全局的认识和了解。而多数对于《黛西·米勒》的研究倾向于将其看作是“新女性”的代表任务,从女权主义视角入手分析。本文第三章着重探讨了亨利·詹姆斯的“国际主题”的发展。认为其经历了从早期强调欧美文化的不同和所带来的冲突到中期意识到文化融合的可能性并尝试探索文化融合之路再到晚期转而探讨人性,道德和社会问题的过程。本文通过对比和分析詹姆斯国际主题三个时期的代表作《黛西·米勒》,《一位贵妇的画像》和《金碗》探讨了这一主题的发展过程。第四章主要分析了影响亨利·詹姆斯选择“国际主题”的三大因素。其一是美国人对于欧洲文化的追求,其二是亨利·詹姆斯独特的家庭教育和成长经历,其三是英国评论家马修·阿诺德对其的影响。第五章是本文的重点,通过对《黛西·米勒》一文的详细分析,指出该文中的“国际主题”表现为天真的美国人和世故的欧洲人之间文化的冲突和对撞。并深入分析了造成这种冲突的具体文化差异,即欧美不同的等级观念和女性道德观,以及对于文化培养的不同态度。在文化心理层面上,“本族中心主义”是造成文化偏见的深层原因。
    Henry James is a great novelist, dramatist and literary critic in the 19th century, occupying a very important position in both British and American literature. In his long creative career, Henry James originated the novels of "International Theme", which refer to the novels base on the background of the cross-Atlantic cultural and moral confrontation and collision between Europe and America. This thesis through surveying and analyzing Henry James’works of the International Theme, indicate that the focus of the International Theme is dynamic and variable.Daisy Miller is one of Henry James’representative works in the early stage, which belong to the works of the International Theme, and mainly demonstrates the great diversities between European and American cultures and the incompatibility of the cultural conflict.This thesis consists of five chapters.The first chapter gives a brief introduction to Henry James’ creative career and his works.The second chapter sorts out and analyzes the researches on Henry James and his works, the International Theme and Daisy Miller respectively, pointing out that most of researchers haven’t fully recognize the development of the focus of the International Theme.They just view it as static, discussing it in the works of one stage or even in one work. And most of the studies on Daisy Miller tend to consider the heroin Daisy Miller as a representative of "New Women", criticizing it from the feminine perspective.The third chapter of this thesis emphasizes the development of Henry James’ International Theme.The thesis believes that in the early stage of his creative career, Henry James’International Theme tried to show the opposition of the two cultures, and emphasized the great gap between the cultures of the two continents, believing their conflict was incompatible.But in his so-called climax--a Portrait of a Lady, his early concept changed, he no longer stuck to the incompatibility of the two cultures, but began to believe the possibility of the cultural fusion, and tried to explore the way of cultural fusion. Henry James was fond of discussing the problems of human nature, society and morality, Then, through the rich of his experience and the enlargement of his view, The racial divergences of the Europeans and the Americans became trifle and insignificant, but the common nature of human beings beneath these differences drew his strong attention and interest. So in his later works, Henry James was fond of discussing the problems of human nature, society and morality.The fourth of this thesis analyzes three important factors affected Henry James’ choice of the International Theme. The first is the Americans’pilgrimage for European culture; the second is Henry James’family education and special experience, the last is the influence of Mathew Arnold. Then, the last chapter is the most important part of this thesis.The thesis finds that the International Theme expressed in Daisy Miller by the form of the cultural conflict. The different sense of hierarchy, and concept for feminine morality as well as different attitude towards cultural cultivation resulted in this cultural conflict in the novella. In the level of cultural psychology, "Ethnocentrism" is the deep cause for the cultural prejudice and cultural conflict.
        

亨利·詹姆斯的国际主题在《黛西·米勒》中的表现

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1 Introduction8-10
2 Literature Review10-18
    2.1 Studies on Henry James and His Works10-12
    2.2 Studies on Daisy Miller12-14
    2.3 Studies on International Theme14-18
3 Henry James' International Theme and its Development18-24
    3.1 The Notion of International Theme18-19
    3.2 The development of the International Theme19-24
        3.2.1 The incompatibility of cultural conflict20-21
        3.2.2 The Exploration for Cultural Fusion21-22
        3.2.3 The Exploration for Human Nature,Morality and Social Problems22-24
4 Inquiry into Henry James' Choices of the International Theme24-30
    4.1 The Americans' Pilgrimage for Culture24-25
    4.2 Henry James' Special Experience25-27
    4.3 Influence of Mathew Arnold27-30
5 The Expression of the International Theme in Daisy Miller30-47
    5.1 The collision between innocence and sophistication30-33
    5.2 The Causes of Daisy Miller's Tragedy33-41
        5.2.1 Sense of Hierarchy33-35
        5.2.2 Concept for Feminine Morality35-40
        5.2.3 Culture Cultivation40-41
    5.3 Prejudice—Effect of Ethnocentrism41-44
    5.4 Three Forms of Cultural Conflict44-47
Conclusion47-50
Bibliography50-53
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况53-54
Acknowledgement54-56
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