从合作原则和礼貌原则的角度分析奥普拉·温弗里脱口秀节目

Analysis of Oprah Winfrey Show from the Perspectives of the Politeness Principle and the Cooperative Principle

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:俞东明 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 上海外国语大学

Keywords

the Cooperative Principle, the Politeness Principle, talk show

        会话是我们日常交流的一项重要途径。如何进行有效的交流自古以来就是演讲学,修辞学,以及后来的语言学的研究中心。自20世纪初以来,随着语言学及其下属子类学科的迅猛发展,对会话的研究得到了长足进步,并且研究角度也朝着多样化发展。合作原则和礼貌原则作为语用学领域内两个重要理论,广泛地应用在对会话的阐释之中。合作原则侧重描述人们如何遵守或违反该原则及其准则,礼貌原则重点解释人们为什么会以破坏合作原则为代价来实施礼貌准则。随着电视的普及,脱口秀成为了一种新的,广受欢迎的娱乐形式。在全世界范围内林林种种的脱口秀节目当中,奥普拉·温弗里的脱口秀节目可以算作是最受欢迎,最具影响力的一个。许多学者从不同的角度,不同的方法对它进行了探讨,取得了瞩目的成果。该论文试采用礼貌原则和合作原则二理论对奥普拉的脱口秀进行分析。该文分为两大部分,分别是对合作原则的遵守与违反,和对礼貌原则的遵守与违反的考察。经研究发现,主持人通常是采访中能较好遵守合作原则的一方,因为她对合作原则的遵守是整个采访成败的关键,没有她的合作,采访不可能顺利进行;而嘉宾则常常破坏合作原则,是因为他们经常在访问中被询问到一些他们不想回答或者觉得非常尴尬的问题。在这种情况下,他们不得不违反合作原则。但作为一种挽救措施,他们常会自觉或不自觉地遵循一些礼貌原则的准则,从而从一定程度上减轻对双方面子的损害。由于作者本身能力有限,该论文难免有许多不足之处,存在较大进步空间。对于脱口秀的语用学研究,本文还有许多尚未涉及的地方,望在今后的研究中能弥补以上不足之处。
    Conversation is the main means of our daily communication. How to communicate effectively has long been the concern of oration, rhetoric and later, linguistics. During the last century, as the rapid development of linguistics and its subbranches, researches on conversation have been done through different aspects. The Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle, as two fundamental theories in the field of Pragmatics, have been applied to the interpretation of conversation extensively. The CP focuses on describing how people have or have not observed the CP and its maxims; while the PP emphasizes the reasons why people would choose to act at the cost of being non-cooperative.With the widespread of television, talk show becomes a new and popular form of entertainment. Among the various talk show programs in the world, Oprah Winfrey show could be counted as the most popular and influential one. Many scholars have probed into the show introducing varied approaches, and these researches have already achieved outstanding findings. This thesis is going to investigate this type of discourse from the perspectives of Pragmatics, adopting the CP and the PP.Thus the analysis is divided into the observation of the CP and the PP and violation of the CP and the PP respectively. Through investigation, it is discovered that the hostess is always the party who can abide by the CP better because her effort is the foundation of the whole interview, without which the smooth going of the conversation would be impossible. In contrast to the hostess, the guests are more likely to flout the CP for they are often confronted with some questions they do not want to or feel awkward to answer. Under such circumstances, they have to flout the CP. However, as a rescue, they often follow some maxims of the PP consciously or unconsciously, through which they could mitigate the damage to each other’s face.Due to many limitations, subjective or objective, there is still large room for improvement. The present research is not done thoroughly and satisfactorily, and there are still many aspects that have not been touched upon. Hopefully the imperfection can be averted in the future studies.
        

从合作原则和礼貌原则的角度分析奥普拉·温弗里脱口秀节目

Acknowledgement4-5
Abstract5
摘要6-9
Chapter One Introduction9-13
    1.1 Research background9-10
    1.2 Significance of this thesis10-11
    1.3 Organization of this thesis11-13
Chapter Two Literature Review13-21
    2.1 General survey of talk show13-17
        2.1.1 Definition and history of talk show13-14
        2.1.2 Elements of talk show14-15
        2.1.3 Genre of talk show15-17
    2.2 Previous studies on Oprah Winfrey Show17-20
    2.3 Data collection20-21
Chapter Three The Analytical Framework21-32
    3.1 Grice’s Cooperative Principle21-23
        3.1.1 The four Conversational Maxims22-23
    3.2 Conversational Implicature23-27
        3.2.1 Five properties of conversational implicature23-27
    3.3 Leech’s Politeness Principle27-28
        3.3.1 The maxims of the Politeness Principle27-28
    3.4 Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Principle28-32
        3.4.1 The concept of face28-29
        3.4.2 The concept of FTA29-30
        3.4.3 Super strategies for performing FTA30
        3.4.4 Off-record politeness30-32
Chapter Four Oprah Winfrey Show: Data analysis32-50
    4.1 The CP in talk show32-39
        4.1.1 The host’s standpoint32-34
            4.1.1.1 The observation of the CP32-33
            4.1.1.2 The violation of the CP33-34
        4.1.2 The guest’s standpoint34-39
            4.1.2.1 The observation of the CP35-37
            4.1.2.2 The violation of the C.P.37-39
    4.2 The P.P. in talk show39-50
        4.2.1 The host’s standpoint39-45
            4.2.1.1 The observation of the P.P.40-44
            4.2.1.2 The violation of the P.P.44-45
        4.2.2 The guest’s standpoint45-50
            4.2.2.1 The observation of the P.P.45-48
            4.2.2.2 The violation of the P.P.48-50
Chapter Five Conclusion50-52
    5.1 Summary of this thesis50-51
    5.2 Limitations of this thesis51
    5.3 Suggestions for future study51-52
References52-54
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