同质社会的异质存在:《一九八四》和《发条橙》中反英雄角色分析

A Heterogeneous Existence in a Homogeneous Society: a Study of the Anti-Heroes in Nineteen Eighty-four and a Clockwork Orange

作者: 专业:英语语言文学 导师:张和龙 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 上海外国语大学

Keywords

Dystopia, Anti-hero, Heterogeneity, Homogeneity

        英雄崇拜是根植于西方文学中的重要传统,而进入现代主义和后现代主义时期,传统文学中的英雄形象遭到了颠覆和重写。尤其在反乌托邦小说中科学技术极端发达,社会高度“同质化”的背景下,主人公的出场却往往是“和谐”社会中刺耳的音符。正如在《一九八四》和《发条橙》梦魇般的反乌托邦世界里,两名主人公就是以这种“异质”的角色而出现——他们不仅缺乏诸如“勇猛果敢、技艺非凡、坚忍不拔”等传统意义上英雄角色应具备的美德,同时又因其格格不入的思想和反叛行为不能被社会容忍和接受。然而,另一方面他们与生俱来的“异质性”也拒绝被社会“同质化”,致使他们的最后命运只能作为“排泄物”而被社会所抛弃。本文将借用乔治·巴塔耶的“异质论”剖析两部英国著名反乌托邦小说《一九八四》和《发条橙》中反英雄主人公身上所反映的“异质性”。他们虽然看似一文一武,毫不相干,但最后却殊途同归——作为社会不能消化吸收的“异质”而被排泄掉。正是这样一种集复杂和矛盾于一体的“异质性”,使人们时而对他们反叛颓废的行为和言语痛心疾首、哀其不争,时而又对他们追求自我的决心赞叹不已、心存希望,显示出这一类型人物的特殊魅力。
    Hero worship is deeply rooted in the tradition of Western literature, but with the time develops, especially in Modernist and Post-modernist era, the traditional image of heroes have been subverted and rewritten. In particular, in the settings of dystopian fictions as highly developed society of "homogeneity" with extremely advanced science and technology, the presence of the protagonist is always "heterogeneous" as a harsh note in the harmonious chorus, as we can see in renowned dystopian works Nineteen Eighty-Four and A Clockwork Orange with a nightmarish world. Without heroic qualities as "courage, physical prowess, and fortitude", among others, their alien ideas and rebellious behavior make them more anti-heroes, and could not be tolerated and accepted by the society. But on the other hand, their inherent heterogeneity also refuses to be assimilated by the homogeneous society, which leads to their final doom of being excreted by the homogeneous system.The thesis will make a detailed interpretation of Nineteen Eighty-Four and A Clockwork Orange with the emphasis on the analysis of the heterogeneity in the anti-heroic characters in both works, by employing the French writer, George Bataille’s theoretical statement on "heterogeneity". Although apparently, they bear nothing in common, whether in their personalities, experience or rebellions, both heroes eventually meet with the same destiny - being excreted out, as the homogeneous society can not absorb the heterogeneous existence.
        

同质社会的异质存在:《一九八四》和《发条橙》中反英雄角色分析

Acknowledgement4-5
Abstract (English)5
Abstract (Chinese)6-8
Introduction8-12
Chapter One Dystopian Novels and Anti-heroes12-25
    A.T he Dystopian Turn in Literature12-15
    B.A nti-heroes: Definition, Development and Distinctions15-21
    C.A nti-heroes as Heterogeous Existences21-25
Chapter Two The Intellectual Anti-hero in Nineteen Eighty-four25-43
    A.T he Last Intellectual in Oceania27-30
    B. Intellectual Rebellion against Homogeneous Society30-39
    C.Brainwashing: Protection of Homogeneity against the Intellectual39-43
Chapter Three The Violent Anti-hero in A Clockwork Orange43-56
    A.Violent Villain Incompatible with the Society44-48
    B.Violent Rebellion against Homogeneous Society48-51
    C.State Apparatus: Protection of Homogeneity against the Violent51-56
Conclusion56-60
Bibliography60-64
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