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大学生汉语不赞同言语行为的性别差异

—— 以南京理工大学为例
Gender Differences in University Students’ Performance of Disagreements in Chinese

作者: 专业:外国语言及应用语言学 导师:景晓平 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 南京理工大学

Keywords

Chinese disagreement, language gender difference, theories of politeness

        语言与性别一直是社会语用学研究的一个重要领域,尤其是20世纪70年代,伴随着Lakoff的《语言与妇女的地位》的出版,语言礼貌与性别差异的课题无论是从语音、语义、句式还是从言语行为的角度都得到了学者们的广泛关注。近几年,作为对礼貌研究的补充,人们开始关注日常生活中存在的不礼貌现象。“不赞同”作为一种威胁面子的行为,属于不礼貌现象,吸引了国外学者的大量关注,而国内对汉语“不赞同”言语行为的研究相对不足。“不赞同”言语行为往往会影响人际关系,说话人必定采取一系列的语言策略来实施这一言语行为,也可能会存在性别差异。本文尝试通过对理工科大学生汉语中“不赞同”言语行为的实施来研究汉语不礼貌言语行为中的性别差异。本文以Brown和Levinson(1987)以及顾曰国(1990)的礼貌理论为依据,参照前人的相关研究,结合参与者的性别、双方社会地位和社会距离三个因素,通过书面语篇补全测试的方式收集了108名(54名男性和54名女性)南京理工大学三年级学生的有效语料作为研究数据。数据分析表明:第一,总体来说,男性和女性都倾向于采用弱化的策略来表达自己的不赞同,而女性要比男性更多地使用这些策略,在具体策略上,男性更喜欢使用移情类人称指示语,如:第一人称复数;而女性更喜欢一些语篇策略策略,如:陈述理由。对于不礼貌策略(既不弱化也不强化的不赞同策略、强化的不赞同策略)的使用,虽然有时男性使用的数量多,有时女性使用的数量多,但二者之间并没有性别差异。第二,对于不同性别的听话者,二者都倾向于采取更多弱化的语言策略,并且,当听话者是女性时,女性比男性采取更多的弱化策略。第三,无论对于高权势者还是低权势者,二者都倾向于采取弱化的不赞同策略,且二者之间没有性别差异。第四,不管社会距离的远近,女性比男性都更多的使用弱化的不赞同策略,而男性比女性则使用相对较多的强化策略。以上研究表明,在表达汉语不赞同时,女性比男性较为礼貌,在具体策略的运用上,双方的性别和距离影响较大,社会地位影响不大。此外,本研究对于理解汉语中的性别差异及不礼貌言语行为有重要的指导意义,对对外汉语的教学工作有一定的启示作用。
    Language and gender is one of the most important researches in social pragmatics. Particularly since 1970s, with the publication of Lakoff’s Language and Women’s Place, language politeness and gender differences have been researched from different areas, such as phonetics, lexicons, syntax and speech acts. Recently, as complementary to the researches of politeness, the impolite speech act disagreement catches scholars’ eyes abroad. However, with respect to disagreements in Chinese, very few studies are found. What’s more, disagreement is one of the speech acts that damage to the hearers’face. Thus, speakers have to take a series of language strategies to perform this speech act. Therefore, this thesis sets out to explore the gender differences in performing disagreement in Chinese.This thesis takes Brown & Levinson’s (1987) and Gu’s (1990) politeness theory as theoretical framework. Taking sex of hearer, social status and social distance into account, the author designs eight situations and collects 108 (54 males and 54 females) juniors’answers in Nanjing University of Science and Technology by the WDCT as the data. Then the collected data is analyzed through the chi-square test. The analysis shows that first, males and females tend to use more softened disagreement strategies in overall situations and females use more of them than males. As to the softened disagreement sub-strategies, some are preferred by males (such as inclusive first person) and others are preferred by females (such as giving or asking for reasons). Second, males and females are prone to take more softened disagreement strategies regardless of sex of hearer. What’s more, female speakers are observed to employ more softened disagreement strategies to females than male speakers do. Third, there’re no gender differences in using the disagreement strategies to people who are in higher position and in lower position. Fourth, female speakers are found to employ a higher number of softened disagreement strategies to close friends and strangers than male speakers. Therefore, females are more polite than males in showing disagreements to others. As to the sub-strategies, sex of hearer and social distance make lots of differences on them, but social status makes a few differences on them. The present study provides great implications for gender differences and impolite speech acts in Chinese and it’s conducive to the teaching Chinese as a foreign language.
        

大学生汉语不赞同言语行为的性别差异

摘要5-6
Abstract6
Chapter One Introduction10-14
    1.1 Research Object10-11
    1.2 Rationale of the Research11-13
    1.3 Aims of the Research13
    1.4 Structure of the Thesis13-14
Chapter Two Literature Review14-26
    2.1 Definition and Discrimination of Related Terms14-15
    2.2 Previous Studies on Disagreement15-21
        2.2.1 Studies from the Perspective of Politeness Theory15-17
        2.2.2 Studies from the Perspective of Interlanguage Pragmatics17-18
        2.2.3 Studies from the Perspectve of Cross-Culture18-19
        2.2.4 Studies from the Perspective of Conversational Analysis19-20
        2.2.5 Studies from the Perspective of Sociolinguistics20-21
    2.3 Previous Studies on Language and Gender21-24
        2.3.1 Theoretical Studies about Language and Gender21-22
        2.3.2 Empirical Studies about Language and Gender22-24
    2.4 Summary24-26
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework26-33
    3.1 Brown & Levinson's Face Theory26-28
    3.2 Gu Yueguo's Chinese Politeness Theory28-29
    3.3 Analytical Framework of the Present Study29-33
Chapter Four Research Design33-38
    4.1 Research Questions33
    4.2 Data Collection33-34
    4.3 Research Instrument34-36
    4.4 Research Protedures36
    4.5 Data Analysis36-38
Chapter Five Results and Discussion38-70
    5.1 Results38-63
        5.1.1 Overall Tendency about Disagreement Strategies in Chinese38-51
        5.1.2 Disagreement Strategies Adopted by Male and Female with Reference to Sex of Hearer in Chinese51-56
        5.1.3 Disagreement Strategies Adopted by Male and Female with Reference to Social Distance56-60
        5.1.4 Disagreement Strategies Adopted by Male and Female with Reference to Social Status60-63
    5.2 Discussion63-70
        5.2.1 Overall Tendency of Disagreement Strategies Adopted by Males and Females in Chinese64-66
        5.2.2 Gender Difference of Disagreement Strategies in Chinese with Reference to Sex of Hearer66-67
        5.2.3 Gender Difference of Disagreement Strategies in Chinese with Reference to Social Distance67-68
        5.2.4 Gender Difference of Disagreement Strategies in Chinese with Reference to Social Status68-70
Chapter Six Conclusion70-73
    6.1 Conclusion70-72
    6.2 Limitations of the Present Study72
    6.3 Suggestions for the Future Study72-73
Acknowledgements73-74
References74-79
Appendix Ⅰ:调查问卷79-80
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