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CUBS主场效应及影响因素研究

CUBS Home Effect and Influence Factors

作者: 专业:体育教育训练学 导师:阮利民 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨工程大学

Keywords

CUBS, Home Effect, Home Advantage, Home Disadvantage, Effect Factors

        为了提高大学篮球整体水平、促进高校之间相互交流与学习的机会,提高联赛的观赏性。主客场赛制在高校篮球比赛中逐渐开展并日益成熟。但由于主、客场的比赛环境、气候、比赛场地及设备的熟悉情况、赛场气氛、观众支持倾向、球员状态、裁判等因素影响下,促使运动员的心理及临场竞技状态发生了变化。最终导致在面对同一对手时主客场比赛结果出现明显差异。这一现象被很多研究者所关注并将之称为主场效应。但多数研究者是通过比较主客场总胜率是否超过50%来说明它的存在并将其等同于主场优势来一起研究。依据Cournya&Carron(1992)的比赛地点研究框架,主场效应出现的根源是由于主客场比赛地点因素的更变而产生的。所以笔者总结前人的研究观点并结合大超联赛的赛制特点,试图从观众、比赛场地设施与气候环境、旅途行程等比赛地点因素出发,分析主客场不同比赛地点因素对运动员、教练员及裁判员的心理及行为产生的影响,了解CUBS主场效应的存在形式及影响主场效应的主要因素。为教练员和运动员在日后比赛及训练中掌握优势克服劣势提供理论依据。本文采用文献资料法、观察法、问卷调查法、访谈法、逻辑分析等方法进行研究。用网络查阅文献,掌握本文相关的研究现状及前沿发展动态。访谈篮球领域的专家、教练员及裁判员,获取相关信息,征求对本文的研究建议。按CUBS2008-2009赛季南北区的实力排序选取不同等级的9支球队进行调查研究,并对问卷进行数理统计与逻辑分析。最后得出以下主要结论:1主场效应不能等同于主场优势,主场效应以主场正效应(主场优势)和主场负效应(主场劣势)两种形态干预运动成绩。本文将主场效应定义为:体育比赛中,由于比赛地点各种因素对参加比赛的主队运动员、教练员、临场裁判员心理与行为产生了影响。最终对临场比赛的主队运动员竞技水平发挥有促进和抑制作用,如果是积极促进就是主场正效应(主场优势),如果是消极抑制则为主场负效应(主场劣势)。2观众影响因素方面对运动员竞技水平发挥的影响以优势和劣势并存的形式存在。优势主要为观众喝彩助威、积极观众支持下的赛场气氛因素;劣势主要为观众的喝倒彩行为及球员因观众的热情支持而感觉心理压力过大致使竞技水平发挥不好。3裁判因素是主场优势的一个方面。但过于依赖裁判判罚的“主场哨”就会产生主场劣势,影响运动员及教练员的比赛情绪。4主客场赛制下场地设施与环境因素及旅途因素方面是客队不可避免的相对劣势因素,主队间接的获得优势。
    In order to improve the overall level of college basketball,promote mutual exchanges and learning opportunities between universities,and improve the ornamental of league, home and away match system in college basketball games is gradually carried out and mature. However, under the influence of competition environment , climate, venue, familiarity of equipments, stadium atmosphere, support orientation of audience, players’status and referees for home and away match, it changes in athletes’psychological and playing conditions. These eventually lead to the significant differences in outcome in home and away match even when they face to the same opponents. This phenomenon has been of concern to many researchers, and is konwn as home effect. However, most researchers explain it exist by comparing whether the total home and away winning is more than 50% and research it same as home advantage. Based on the research framework of venue writen by Cournya & Carron (1992),the reasons for home effect are the changes of venues and other factors.So I concluded predecessors views and combined competition system features of CUBS. Based on the audiences, venue facilities, environment, travel itinerary and other factors, I analyze the impact of location factors of different home and away match to the psychology and behavior of the athletes, coaches and referees, and understand existing forms of CUBS home effect and main factors of home effect. This paper provides a theoretical basis to the coaches and athletes for gaining the upper and overcoming the disadvantages in th future.This paper research in documentary data method, observation method, questionnaire method, interview method, logic analysis method and so on. I master the related situation of study, and get informations and ask for advices by interview basketball experts, coaches and referees on internet. Based on the southern and northern top list of CUBS2008-2009 season, I select different levels of nine teams to investigate and study,count and Logically analyze for the questionnaire,and get the main conclusions as follows:1 Home effect isn’t same to home advantage. Home effect affects athletic performance by home positive effect(home advantage) and home negative effect(home disadvantage).Home effect can be defined as folows: A variety of factors of venues have an effect on psychology and mentality of hosts athletes, coaches and referees.If it is positive promotion,it is home positive effect(home advantage).If it is negative promotion, it is home negative effect(home disadvantages).2 It exists in advantages and disadvantages of co-existence that audiences’influence have an effect on exertion of level athletes. The main advantages are audiences’applause and good stadium atmosphere.And the main disadvantages are audiences’applause and the competitive level of play of the player is not well because of the audience cheer enthusiasticly plays leading to the psychological sense of the plays have excessive pressure.3 Referee factor is an aspect of home advantage.If they depend too much on the referees, home effect will be producted,and it will have an effect on mood of athletes and referees.4 Based on home and away match system,site facility, environment factors and travel factors are the inevitable disadvantages of guest teams.Home teams get advantage indirectly.
        

CUBS主场效应及影响因素研究

摘要5-7
Abstract7-8
第1章 绪论11-23
    1.1 选题依据11-12
    1.2 研究目的与意义12
    1.3 研究任务12-13
    1.4 研究现状13-23
        1.4.1 关于主场效应定义的研究现状13-14
        1.4.2 主场效应的研究现状14-18
        1.4.3 心理学理论与主场效应18-23
第2章 研究对象与方法23-27
    2.1 研究对象23
    2.2 研究方法23-27
        2.2.1 文献资料法23
        2.2.2 观察法23
        2.2.3 问卷调查法23-25
        2.2.4 访谈法25
        2.2.5 数理统计法25-26
        2.2.6 逻辑分析法26-27
第3章 研究结果与分析27-55
    3.1 CUBS 主场效应的存在形式27-33
        3.1.1 对主场效应的认识理解及界定27-31
        3.1.2 CUBS 赛制特点下的主场效应31-33
    3.2 CUBS 主场效应的若干影响因素整理33-34
    3.3 CUBS 主场效应的主要影响因素分析34-55
        3.3.1 观众因素34-42
        3.3.2 场地设施和环境因素42-46
        3.3.3 旅途行程因素46-49
        3.3.4 裁判因素49-52
        3.3.5 教练员因素52-53
        3.3.6 运动员心理状态因素53-55
第4章 结论与建议55-57
    4.1 结论55-56
    4.2 建议56-57
参考文献57-61
攻读硕士学位期间发表的论文和取得的科研成果61-62
致谢62-63
附录63-70
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