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高校硕士研究生胜任特征模型与培养绩效的关系研究

The Study on Competency Model and Training Performance of Master Students in Higher Learning Institutions

作者: 专业:应用心理学 导师:王玉珅 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨工程大学

Keywords

Graduate students, Competency, Competency Model, Training Performance

        中国教育体系的最高层次是研究生教育,它是未来高级人才的主要来源,近年来,研究生的招生规模大幅增加,为我国社会经济、科技和文化发展提供了可靠的人才保证。然而研究生数量的增加不是衡量研究生教育发展的唯一标准,更重要的在于提高研究生的培养绩效。特别是近几年研究生的就业困难,研究生科研能力、创新能力及毕业学位论文质量等问题受到一定程度的质疑,这些社会现象的出现在一定程度上反应出研究生教育培养存在的诸多不足。作为现代的高等学校,如何满足社会的需求,建立合理的资源配置,提高研究生的教育质量,考核其人才培养的绩效问题,就要看其人才培养工作是否促进了研究生对自身胜任能力的重视与提高。本研究在广泛综述与分析国内外有关胜任特征与绩效研究成果的基础上,提出了研究的方向,即探讨我国高校硕士研究生胜任特征模型与培养绩效的关系,从心理学的视角分析高校硕士研究生的胜任特征模型对培养绩效的预测作用,从而为研究生培养单位及时掌握研究生培养绩效动态和研究生培养质量的科学决策提供依据,达到高等教育促进人的全面发展,为社会发展服务的目的。论文首先在行为事件访谈法和问卷调查法的基础上,编制出高校硕士研究生的胜任特征量表,并运用SPSS13.0和AMOS16.0统计软件进行探索性和验证性因素分析,构建出高校硕士研究生的胜任特征模型;其次,运用问卷法对400名被试进行定量研究,编制出硕士研究生的培养绩效问卷并进行验证;最后从研究生自身应遵循的符合研究生胜任特征的标准出发,探究硕士研究生的胜任特征与培养绩效的关系。得出研究结果如下:1.本研究编制的高校硕士研究生的胜任特征模型与培养绩效量表具有较高的信度和效度,可作为研究者科学分析和测评的工具。2.验证性因素分析表明,硕士研究生的胜任特征模型包括五个因素:个性特征、专业技能、人际互动、心理素质和创新能力;培养绩效包括三个因素:分别是个人绩效评价、学校绩效应用和社会绩效反馈。3.高校硕士研究生胜任特征模型与培养绩效的关系研究表明:个人绩效评价,学校绩效应用,社会绩效反馈都与胜任特征的五个维度成显著正相关。其中个人绩效评价与专业技能、个人特征和心理素质相关较高,学校绩效应用与专业技能和创新能力相关较高,社会绩效反馈与人际促进相关较高。4.硕士研究生胜任特征模型对培养绩效预测作用路径分析结果为:专业技能对培养绩效中的个人绩效评价有正向预测作用,对学校绩效应用有直接正向预测作用,对社会绩效反馈既有直接正向预测作用,也有间接正向预测作用;个性特征、心理素质能对个人绩效评价有直接正向预测作用,对学校绩效应用和社会绩效反馈有间接正向预测作用;人际互动对社会绩效反馈有直接正向预测作用,创新能力对学校绩效应用有直接正向预测作用,对个人绩效评价有间接正向预测作用。
    The highest level of China’s education system is postgraduate education, which is the main source of future high-level talent, in recent years, graduate enrollment increased substantially, as our socio-economic, scientific, technological and cultural development of a reliable guarantee of talent. However, the increase in the number of graduate students is not the only measure of the development of standards for graduate education, it is more important to improve the training performance of graduate students. Particularly in recent years it is difficult for graduate employment, graduate research, innovation and quality issues of graduation thesis subject is to a certain degree of doubt, The emergence of these social phenomena to some extent reflect the quality of graduate education among the many deficiencies. As the modern universities, how to meet the needs of society, a reasonable allocation of resources, improve the quality of graduate education, assessment of its personnel training performance, depends on whether its personnel training for graduate students to promoted the importance of its own competence and increase.In this study, on the basis of research results to extensive review and analyse competency and performance at home and abroad, proposed research direction to explore the relationship of the Chinese universities graduate competency model between training performance, analyse from the perspective of psychology, the competency model of graduate students to predict training performance, postgraduate training units to grasp the dynamic training performance of graduate students and postgraduate students in the quality of scientific basis for decision-making, to promote the comprehensive development of higher education for social development purposes. Firstly based on the behavioral event interviews and questionnaires to establish the graduate students of the competency model scale, and the use of statistical software SPSS13.0 and AMOS16.0 exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, construct a university postgraduate graduate of the competency model; Secondly, the use of questionnaires to 400 were tested on a quantitative study, establishment the graduate students training performance and to verify the questionnaire validated; Last from graduate students itself should follow their own graduate competency standards, explore the relation on competency model and training performance of master students in higher learning institutions. The results obtained are as follows:1. This study compiled by university graduate students with the competency model and training performance scale has good reliability and validity, as researchers a tool for scientific analysis and evaluation.2. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the competency model of graduate students, including five factors: personal characteristics, professional skills, interpersonal, psychological and creative thinking; training performance included three factors: namely individual performance evaluation, school performance applications and social performance feedback.3.The relation study of competency model and training performance of master students in higher learning institutions shows that: personal performance evaluation, application of the school performance, social performance feedback with the competency of the five dimensions were significantly correlated. One individual performance evaluation and professional skills, personal characteristics and psychological qualities related to higher, school performance applications higher related professional skills and innovative thinking, society feedback and interpersonal promote has a high correlation.4. Competency model of master students predict training performance results of path analysis: Professional skills on the training performance of the individual had a positive role in performance evaluation, on school performance prediction application has a direct positive effect, on the social performance feedback both directly and indirect prediction; personality characteristics, psychological evaluation to individual performance can have a direct positive prediction, school performance application and social performance feedback has an indirect positive prediction; interaction with the social performance feedback has direct positive prediction, innovative thinking on school performance application has a direct positive prediction, individual performance evaluation has an indirect positive prediction.
        

高校硕士研究生胜任特征模型与培养绩效的关系研究

摘要5-7
Abstract7-9
第1章 绪论12-19
    1.1 前言:问题的提出12-15
        1.1.1 论文研究的背景12-14
        1.1.2 论文研究的目的14
        1.1.3 论文的研究意义14-15
    1.2 研究内容、研究方法和技术路线15-19
        1.2.1 论文的研究内容15-16
        1.2.2 论文的研究方法16-18
        1.2.3 论文的技术路线18-19
第2章 相关研究综述19-35
    2.1 胜任特征的文献综述19-25
        2.1.1 胜任特征的定义19-20
        2.1.2 胜任特征模型的介绍20-21
        2.1.3 胜任特征的研究方法21-22
        2.1.4 胜任特征国内外研究现状22-25
    2.2 培养绩效的文献综述25-33
        2.2.1 关于“绩效”25-27
        2.2.2 关于“研究生培养绩效”27-28
        2.2.3 研究生培养绩效的影响因素分析28-30
        2.2.4 培养绩效的国内外研究现状30-33
    2.3 已有研究成果及存在的不足33-35
        2.3.1 胜任特征方面33-34
        2.3.2 胜任特征与绩效的关系方面34-35
第3章 研究一硕士研究生胜任特征模型的构建35-52
    3.1 研究目的35
    3.2 研究设计35
    3.3 预试问卷的编制35-39
        3.3.1 预试问卷的项目获得35-36
        3.3.2 预试及数据分析36-39
    3.4 正式问卷的编制39-41
        3.4.1 正式问卷的设计39
        3.4.2 正式问卷的实施39-41
    3.5 正式问卷的结果分析41-50
        3.5.1 正式问卷的探索性因素分析41-43
        3.5.2 研究生胜任特征模型维度——因子命名43-44
        3.5.3 正式问卷的验证性因素分析44-49
        3.5.4 正式问卷的信度和效度检验49-50
    3.6 本章小结50-52
第4章 研究二硕士研究生培养绩效的问卷编制52-63
    4.1 研究目的52
    4.2 正式问卷的编制52-56
        4.2.1 预试52
        4.2.2 预试问卷的项目分析52-54
        4.2.3 结构分析54-56
    4.3 正式施测56
    4.4 正式问卷的结果分析56-62
        4.4.1 硕士研究生培养绩效探索性因素分析56-58
        4.4.2 硕士研究生培养绩效维度——因子命名58-59
        4.4.3 硕士研究生培养绩效验证性因素分析59-62
        4.4.4 硕士研究生培养绩效信度、效度分析62
    4.5 本章小结62-63
第5章 研究三硕士研究生胜任特征模型与培养绩效的关系63-70
    5.1 研究目的63
    5.2 研究假设63
    5.3 研究方法与步骤63-64
    5.4 数据处理及统计分析64-68
        5.4.1 量表的描述性统计分析64
        5.4.2 硕士研究生胜任特征模型与培养绩效的相关分析64-65
        5.4.3 硕士研究生培养绩效关于胜任特征的回归分析65-66
        5.4.4 硕士研究生胜任特征模型对培养绩效预测作用路径分析66-68
        5.4.5 量表测试的信度、效度分析68
    5.5 本章小结68-70
第6章 研究讨论与建议70-74
    6.1 对测量工具的讨论70-71
    6.2 对研究结果的讨论71-72
    6.3 研究的价值72
    6.4 未来研究建议72-74
结论74-75
参考文献75-79
攻读硕士学位期间发表的论文和取得的科研成果79-80
致谢80-81
附录81-86
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