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高师本科景观设计专业方向课程体系的设置与整合研究

Normal University Undergraduate Landscape-Design-Oriented Course System Offering and Integrating

作者: 专业:课程与教学论 导师:张志攀 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 浙江师范大学

Keywords

Normal Colleges and Universities, Landscape Design, Humanism Course, Integration

        伴随着人们对景观生态、景观美学等方面的日益关注,景观设计学科的重要意义被社会的逐渐认识,中国景观事业这几年得到了迅猛发展,景观专业也由前几年的“默默无闻”专业摇身一变成为现在的“热门”专业。我国有135所高等师范院校,其中绝大多数都设置有景观设计专业方向或相关的专业课程。但是,当今景观设计教育中也存在着不少问题,较突出的问题有:专业定位不合理;培养目标不明确;课程设置体系混乱;课程设置内容滞后;各专业课程之间缺乏统筹安排,系统性不强;缺乏合理的师资建设机制;缺乏对交叉学科的整合;教学框架不适应人才培养的需要等等。而这些问题的存在将直接影响到景观设计学科的进一步健康、快速发展,因而急需解决。论文首先对景观、景观设计、课程、设置与整合等相关概念作了全面而深入的阐释。其次,对美国和国内景观设计专业的历史沿革进行了说明,对高师本科景观设计专业的现状、出现的问题及其原因作了深入的分析。再次,对国内外成熟的景观设计专业方向课程设置作了分析与启示说明,对具有代表性的美国哈弗大学和中国同济大学进行了详细分析与说明,并认为,具有百年景观设计专业历史的哈佛大学和培养出第一个本土的园林设计博士的同济大学的课程教学体系,对高师院校景观设计教育体系的建设与完善具有重要的借鉴意义和参考价值。最后,对景观设计专业方向课程提出了自己的对策与建议。论文中提出了在景观设计课程教育目前尚处于形成初期专业学科教育相对滞后,没有相对完整、合理的课程体系和课程设置的情况下,用“人本主义课程理论”构建景观设计专业方向课程体系和教学理念。论文景观设计专业方向课程提出的对策与建议主要有以下几个方面的内容:第一,景观设计专业方向课程的教育目标;第二,景观设计专业方向课程的结构模块构成;第三,景观设计专业方向课程的内容;第四,景观设计专业方向课程的整合内容与整合方式。论文从教学的阶段上提出了双层工作室制为核心的整合,即二三年级时专业项目工作室,四年级进入导师项目工作室。双层工作室制,一方面,是专业学科发展的需要:工作室制是实现教育教学、学术研究与社会服务三大功能的基本载体,随着专业课程教育在教学、学术研究和社会服务三大功能的突显,急需一个新的教学平台来支撑,工作室是实现以上三大功能最好的教学平台,是专业学科发展的需要;另一方面,是专业人才培养的需要:双层工作室制为学生学习建立相对固定的不同层次的学习空间,学生专业的归属感强,学习自觉性得以开发。工作室的固定学习空间和开放性的教学特点,便于学生合理利用课余时间学习,满足学生日益增长的专业学习需求,并能有效的激发教师与学生的团队意识。通过项目学习培养实践能力,通过课题与竞赛培养创新精神,通过资源的因借整合形成特色发展。总之,通过以上对策不断完善景观设计教育体系,促进我国高师院校景观设计方向学科专业不断发展。
    With the landscape ecology and landscape aesthetics, etc, being increasingly concerned by people, the important significance of the discipline of landscape design has been gradually recognized by the society. Over recent years, the landscape-related cause experienced the rapid development in China. The major of landscape which was unknown to the public several years ago suddenly became a "hot" major at present. Our country has 135 normal colleges and universities, most of which have offered the landscape design-oriented majors or related major courses.However, there are many problems discovered in current landscape design education. The relatively obvious problems are as follows:the orientation of major is unreasonable; the training targets are not clear; the course offering system is disorderly; the contents of courses are laggard; such education lacks of overall arrangement among major courses and the systematicness is weak; the reasonable teacher development mechanism and the cross-discipline integration are in shortage; the teaching frame is not suitable to talent cultivation, etc. The existence of these problems will direct affect the further sound and rapid development of the major of landscape design; therefore, the problems are urgently needed to be settled.Firstly, this paper comprehensively and deeply interprets the related concepts including the concept of landscape, landscape design, course, offering and integration. Secondly, it explains the history of landscape design major in the U.S.A. and at home and conducts profound analysis on the status quo, problems and reasons for problems of the landscape design major offered to undergraduates by normal colleges and universities. Thirdly, it analyzes and inspiringly explains the mature landscape-design-oriented course offering at home and abroad and specially analyzes and illustrates the U.S.A.’s Harvard University and China’s Tongji University, which are considered as the representatives in this aspect. It deems that the course and teaching system of Harvard University with about a hundred of years’ history of landscape design major and Tongji University which cultivated the first local garden design doctor are of reference significance and value for the development and improvement of normal colleges and universities’landscape design education system. At last, it puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions on the landscape-design oriented courses. The paper brings that under the circumstance when the landscape design course and education are still in the initial forming period, the majoring education is relatively laggard and there is no comparatively complete and reasonable course system and offering, we should apply the "humanism course theory" in developing the landscape-design-oriented course system and teaching concept.Targeting at the landscape-design-oriented courses, this paper mainly puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions on the following aspects:firstly, the educational objective of landscape-design-oriented courses;secondly, the composition of the structure model of landscape-design-oriented course; thirdly, the contents of the landscape-design-oriented courses; fourthly, the contents and ways of integration of the landscape-design-oriented courses. In terms of the teaching stage, it puts forward the integration with the double-studio system as core, which namely includes the special project studio for the sophomore and junior students and the supervisor project studio for the senior students. On the one hand, the double-studio system is for meeting the demand in development of major:the studio system is taken as the basic carrier for realizing the three functions, namely, education and teaching, academic research and social service. With the education of major courses being highlighted in teaching, academic research and social service, a new teaching platform for support is urgently needed. The studio is regarded as the best teaching platform for realizing the above three functions and satisfying the demand in development of major; on the other hand, it is for meeting the demand in professional talent cultivation:the double-studio system will set up the relatively fixed different-layer study space for students, presenting the students with strong sense of major belonging and making their consciousness of study developed. The studio’s characteristics of fixed study space and openness are convenient for students to reasonably apply their after-school time in study, which will also satisfy the students’ increasing demand for major study and effectively arouse the teachers and students’ team awareness.Through project study, the students’ practical ability will be trained; through conducting topic discussion and competition, the students’ spirit of innovation will be cultivated; through integrating the resources, the characteristic development will be realized. In general, through the above countermeasures, the landscape design education system will be constantly improved, which will further boost the constant development of the normal colleges and universities’ landscape-design-oriented major in our country.
        

高师本科景观设计专业方向课程体系的设置与整合研究

摘要3-5
Abstract5-7
一、前言10-19
    (一) 研究缘起10-12
        1.选题意义10-11
        2.国内外研究现状11-12
    (二) 相关概念12-16
        1.景观12-13
        2.景观设计13
        3.课程13-15
        4.设置15-16
        5.整合16
    (三) 研究的目的、思路与方法16-18
        1.研究的目的16-17
        2.研究的思路与方法17-18
    (四) 研究成果的适用范围18-19
二、景观设计专业方向课程设置的现状及存在的问题19-28
    (一) 景观设计本科专业课程教学体系的历史沿革19-22
        1.美国景观设计专业的历史沿革19-20
        2.我国景观设计专业的历史沿革20-22
    (二) 景观设计专业课程与教育的现状22-24
        1.国内景观设计专业课程与教育的现状22-23
        2.高师院校景观设计专业课程与教育的现状23-24
    (三) 景观设计专业方向课程设置存在的问题及原因24-28
        1.专业课程教育定位不明确24
        2.专业课程教育结构设置不合理24-26
        3.专业课程教育缺少实践环节26
        4.专业课程教育缺少创新性26-27
        5.专业课程教育缺乏整合27-28
三、国内外成熟的景观设计专业方向课程设置分析与启示28-35
    (一) 哈佛大学的课程教学体系28-31
        1.景观设计教育哲学28-29
        2.景观设计专业课程体系29-31
    (二) 同济大学的课程教学体系31-35
四、景观设计专业方向课程整合的对策与建议35-52
    (一) 景观设计专业方向课程的教育目标35-38
    (二) 景观设计专业方向课程的结构模块38-39
    (三) 景观设计专业方向课程的内容39-46
        1.知识课程模块40-42
        2.情意课程模块42-46
    (四) 景观设计专业方向课程的整合46-52
        1.时空阶段的整合——双层工作室制46-48
        2.实践能力的培养——项目学习48-49
        3.创新精神的培养——课题与竞赛49-50
        4.特色发展的形成——因借整合50-52
结论52-54
参考文献54-56
攻读学位期间取得的研究成果56-57
致谢57-58
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