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情绪状态对抑制不同效价侵入式思维表现的影响

The Effects of Mood States to the Performance of Inhibiting Valenced Intrusive Thoughts

作者: 专业:发展与教育心理学 导师:任俊 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 浙江师范大学

Keywords

self-regulation, inhibition, emotion states, valenced intrusive thoughts

        根据自我管理的能力模型,有限的资源潜在于有目的的反应调节及其他自我管理行为中。前人的研究显示,抑制侵入式思维,也就是说进行自我管理,会消耗有限的资源并导致自我耗竭,从而使接下来的自我管理行为趋于失败;消极情绪同样具有损耗自我管理资源的功能,而积极情绪能抵消因执行自我管理或经历消极情绪而导致的资源损耗。思维抑制是自我管理的一项重要内容,当自我管理资源被损耗时,抑制能力也会受到损害,同时,情绪状态也可有效地影响思维抑制任务的表现。在自我管理领域的研究中,为了让被试执行自我管理任务以检测其自我管理能力而要求其进行思维抑制时,所用的侵入式思维目标物要么是中性的(比如说让被试不要想“白熊”),要么有一定效价但没有与之匹配的不同效价的对等物(比如说让被试抑制想到死亡的恐惧),所以不同情绪状态的被试在抑制不同效价侵入式思维表现上的差异仍然是未知的。此研究尝试回答这一尚未被触及的问题,即一旦赋予侵入式思维以效价,不同情绪状态的被试抑制这一效价目标物的表现将如何?此实验首先通过影片诱导被试至不同情绪状态(积极、中性和消极),之后通过字词联系的范式将中性的侵入式思维目标物“白熊”与积极词汇或消极词汇相联系,从而分别赋予“白熊”以积极或消极效价(这样可以创造出两个除了效价外其他方面都完全对等的侵入式思维目标物)。最后让被试在规定的1.5分钟内在白纸上自由写下想到的内容,但是要抑制想“白熊”,一旦想到“白熊”或有任何想“白熊”的尝试,都要在白纸右侧的格子里上划一条竖线。被试划线的数目就是抑制成绩的代表,也就是本研究的因变量。结果表明,被试抑制消极效价“白熊”的表现要优于抑制积极效价“白熊”的表现;情绪因素的主效应及因素间(情绪与效价)的交互作用均不显著。通过对研究结果的讨论,此研究认为,被试可能有更强的动机抑制负效价的侵入式思维目标物的入侵,以保持情绪状态的良好或不被继续破坏,保护自我管理资源。不同情绪被试间的抑制任务表现无显著差异的原因在于:诱导的情绪导致的自我管理资源变化的部分很可能足以在接下来的字词联系环节得以恢复,可能是情绪的启动而不是情绪的持续导致自我管理资源的变化。
    According to the strength model of self-regulation, limited resources underlie purposeful response modulation and other acts of self-control. Previous studies showed that suppressing intrusive thoughts, which means exerting self-control, depletes the limited resource and results in ego depletion, leads self-control failure in subsequent self-control task. Negative emotions act the same role as exerting self-control and cause self depletion too. While positive emotions could counteract the depletion causes by exerting self-control or negative emotions. Thought inhibition is a vital aspect of self-regulation, which also will be damaged when self-regulation resource depleted, and emotion can influence inhibition strength too.In the studies of self-regulation field, experimenter often manipulated participants to inhibit intrusive thoughts to test their self-regulation strength. While the targets of intrusive thoughts were either neutral (e.g., not think "white bear"), or valenced but got no parallel to contrast with (e.g., inhibit the fear of death thought). So it still remains unknown that the difference of inhibition performance of participants in different emotions.This study tries to answer the intact question that once the intrusive thoughts are valenced, how will the performance change in suppressing to participants under different state of moods? In the experiment, participants first were induced to different emotions (positive, neutral and negative), then endow valence to intrusive thought target "white bear" by associating it with positive or negative words (to create two parallel intrusive thought targets). Subsequently, participants are instructed to do a free writing task in which they wrote down "whatever comes to their mind," but on a condition that they were not allowed to think of the white bear. However, they were told if they were to have thoughts of a white bear, even though they were attempting not to, they were to make a tally mark in a box on the side of the paper. The number of tall marks is dependent variable of this study, which represents inhibition strength.The result showed that participants’ performance of inhibiting negative "white bear" was better than their performance of inhibiting positive one; while emotion has no main effect or interaction effect with valence. It indicates that participants may have stronger motive in suppressing negative valenced intrusive thought target to keep good emotion or preventing further damage to it, which means protect self-regulation resource. The reason of no significant difference of inhibition performance among different emotions may be, the change of self-regulation resource caused by the change of emotion may be renewed in words association procedure. It was the effect of emotion priming instead of sustain of emotion caused the change of self-regulation resource.
        

情绪状态对抑制不同效价侵入式思维表现的影响

摘要3-5
ABSTRACT5-6
目录7-9
1 研究背景9-20
    1.1 关于情绪9-10
    1.2 情绪研究的演变历程10-12
        1.2.1 关于积极情绪的研究10-11
        1.2.2 关于消极情绪的研究11-12
    1.3 情绪与自我管理12-17
        1.3.1 情绪对自我管理的影响12-14
        1.3.2 自我管理资源理论14-15
        1.3.3 享乐的偶然模式15-16
        1.3.4 思维抑制16-17
    1.4 情绪的一致性与不一致效应17-20
2 研究意义和研究假设20-22
    2.1 研究意义20-21
        2.1.1 理论意义20
        2.1.2 实践意义20-21
    2.2 研究假设21-22
        2.2.1 情绪状态对抑制行为的影响21
        2.2.2 侵入式词汇的效价对抑制行为的影响21-22
3 实验研究22-31
    3.1 实验设计根据22
    3.2 被试22
    3.3 实验材料22-24
        3.3.1 情绪操纵录像22-23
        3.3.2 情绪自评量表23
        3.3.3 字词联系程序23-24
    3.4 实验设计及程序24-26
        3.4.1 情绪操纵及测量24
        3.4.2 字词联系24-25
        3.4.3 抑制表现测量25
        3.4.4 意识水平检验25-26
    3.5 实验控制26
    3.6 数据分析26-27
    3.7 实验结果27-31
        3.7.1 情绪操纵的有效性检验27-28
        3.7.2 思维抑制数据分析28-29
        3.7.3 意识水平检验29-31
4 讨论31-38
    4.1 结果解释31-33
    4.2 本研究的亮点、局限及未来的研究33-38
        4.2.1 本研究的亮点33-34
            4.2.1.1 对"白熊"这一词汇在自我管理领域的创新性使用33
            4.2.1.2 为自我管理领域的"抑制力"研究提供新的参考33
            4.2.1.3 展示了HCM及自我管理资源理论统合的思路33-34
        4.2.2 本研究的局限34-35
            4.2.2.1 情绪状态对自我管理行为的影响34
            4.2.2.2 效价抑制物的选择34-35
        4.2.3 未来的研究35-38
            4.2.3.1 区分动机与能力因素35-36
            4.2.3.2 干预策略的研究36-38
参考文献38-48
致谢48-49
攻读学位期间取得的研究成果49-50
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