工作记忆内容对无意视盲的改善作用

The Contents of Working Memory to Improve Inattentional Blindness

作者: 专业:应用心理学 导师:胡凤培 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 浙江理工大学

Keywords

Working Memory, Inattentional Blindness, A biased competition model, Perceptual Load

        视觉通道是我们获取信息的主要来源,注意是能量有限的信息加工系统,因此,视觉注意捕获是认知心理学一直以来的研究重点,而捕获依赖工作记忆内容对视觉注意的引导。有研究者认为刺激在多种表征水平上竞相选择,唯有“获胜者”获得知觉、反应系统的加工资源,而工作记忆可使注意朝向与其内容相匹配的信息。基于工作记忆内容对视觉注意捕获引导的理论基础,工作记忆内容是否影响无意视盲?无意视盲是指(Inattentional Blindness)当观察者集中注意于某个物体或事件的时候,他们经常不能觉察到显著的、与众不同的物体。如何影响?如受知觉负荷等因素调节。本实验运用无意视盲的典型程式即静态无意视盲范式,通过两个研究分别探讨工作记忆内容对无意视盲的引导作用与引导的自动性,具体而言是指该引导作用是否还受一些因素的影响,比如知觉负荷等。这样的设置可充分探讨工作记忆内容对无意视盲的改善作用。研究结果表明,与工作记忆内容同类属的非期望刺激有显著高的觉察值,说明在纯语义水平上工作记忆内容引导视觉注意捕获,进而改善了无意视盲;知觉负荷由低到高变化时,与工作记忆内容同类属的非期望刺激的觉察值无显著变化,而与工作记忆内容不同类属的非期望刺激的觉察值显著降低,说明工作记忆内容对无意视盲引导不受知觉负荷的调节,是一种自动化的过程,还表明工作记忆内容引导的视觉注意捕获发生于视觉注意早期捕获阶段。相比以往的研究,本研究在如下方面获得了突破:(1)以往研究更多聚焦于工作记忆是否与视觉注意捕获存在交互作用,本研究除探讨工作记忆内容对无意视盲的引导外还探讨该引导作用受哪些因素调节,知觉负荷变量的设置为探讨两者关系的实质迈进了一步。(2)以往研究多探讨工作记忆对内隐注意捕获的引导作用,而无意视盲是外显注意捕获的典型现象,本研究率先开展工作记忆内容对无意视盲的影响研究。这不仅拓展了工作记忆对视觉注意捕获的引导,而且探讨了工作记忆内容对意识选择性的影响。(3)本研究结论获得了如下突破,一是研究发现工作记忆内容对无意视盲的改善作用很强大,即不随知觉负荷而变化,该结论充实了偏向竞争模型,即增加引导自动化的观点,二是研究表明注意捕获依据任务的设定,就融合了Folk(1992)提出的一致驱动假说与Most(2001)的刺激相似性假说,还综合Styles和Lavie的观点,认为视觉注意选择发生的阶段既要依赖任务要求也要依据负荷。
    It is important to get information from the visual channel. however, Attention is a energy limited information processing system, therefore.Visual Attention Capture has been the research focus in cognitive psychology,and capture depended on the guidance from the content of working memory.Some researchers proposed that stimuli compete for selection at multiple levels of representation, with the‘winner’gaining control of both perceptual and response systems.Within this framework, Working Memory acts to bias the competition for attention to favor objects that fit the goals of the task.On the theoretical basis of the contents of working memory to guide visual attention capture,working memory would affect Inattentional blindness? Inattentional blindness refers to when the observers focus attention on an object or event, they often can not be aware of significant, unusual objects. How? Affected by factors such as perceptual load .In our study,we used explicit visual attentional capture program,which is a typical static Inattention Blindness Paradigm,to examine Inattention Blindness from the guidance of the content of working memory and whether it is automatic. In other words, whether the role of the guide is also affected by some factors, such as perceptual load. The setting can be fully explored the contents of working memory to improve Inattentional BlindnessThe experiment one’s result showed that when the unexpected stimulus which matched the content of working memory,and it has got a significantly perceived lever, indicating the contents of working memory could guide Inattentional blindness on a purely semantic level. The experiment two’s result showed that when the unexpected stimulus which matched the content of working memory,and it has got a significantly perceived level, even that perceptual load couldn’t affect. However when the unexpected stimulus unmatched the content of working memory and it got significantly perceived lever between high perceptual load and low perceptual load,indicating Inattentional Blindness from the contents of working memory’s guidance didn’t depend on perceptual load ,and it is a relatively automated information process, also indicating that Inattentional Blindness from the contents of working memory’s guidance in the early capture stage of visual attention.To sum up, compared to previous studies, this study was a breakthrough in the following areas: (1) Most of previous studies focused on whether the interaction between working memory and visual attentional capture is.Our study further explored visual attentional capture from the contents of working memory’guidance is also affected by some factors,such as perceptual load. Therefore, our study has involved in a guiding role to explore their relationship.(2) Most of previous studies looking at implicite visual attentional capture from the contents of working memory’s guidance,but Inattentional blindness is a typical of explicit attentional capture phenomenon.Our study has done Inattentional Blindess from the contents of working memory’s guidance taking the lead. It not only expands study content, but also discussed Consciousness selective from the contents of working memory’guidance. (3) The innovation of our study in two aspects.on the one hand, our study took the lead in Inattentional Blindness from the contents of working memory’guidance with a purely semantic matching lever,and the guidance didn’t depend on perceptual load,which provided relative automatic guidance with Strong evidence.On the other hand, the result showed attentional capture based on the task settings.which combined the Folk (1992)’propose,the same hypothesis-driven and Most (2001)’s hypothesis that similarity-capture.And also provided a comprehensive view when took place the visual attention selective not only rely on task requirements but on load.
        

工作记忆内容对无意视盲的改善作用

摘要4-6
Abstract6-7
图目录9-10
表目录10-11
第1章 绪论11-31
    1.1 引言11
    1.2 工作记忆概述11-15
        1.2.1 语音环11-13
        1.2.2 视空画板13
        1.2.3 中央执行系统13-15
    1.3 视觉注意捕获概述15-23
        1.3.1 内隐注意捕获15-18
        1.3.2 外显注意捕获18-23
    1.4 知觉水平与概念水平的视觉注意捕获23-24
    1.5 工作记忆内容对视觉注意捕获的引导作用24-27
        1.5.1 基于视觉编码的工作记忆内容对视觉注意捕获的引导24-25
        1.5.2 基于语音编码的工作记忆内容对视觉注意捕获的引导25-27
    1.6 问题提出27-28
    1.7 本研究的内容28-31
第2章 基于工作记忆内容的无意视盲研究31-37
    2.1 方法31-33
    2.2 结果与分析33-34
    2.3 讨论34-36
    2.4 本章小结36-37
第3章 基于工作记忆内容的无意视盲的负荷效应37-44
    3.1 方法38-39
    3.2 结果与分析39-41
    3.3 讨论41-42
    3.4 联合讨论42-43
    3.5 本章小结43-44
第4章 结语44-46
    4.1 主要结论44
    4.2 创新贡献44-45
    4.3 未来研究45-46
参考文献46-51
致谢51-52
附录52-54
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