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不同教学方法对高校学生认知影响的实证研究

An Empirical Study of The Cognitive Effects of Different Teaching Methods on University Students

作者: 专业:教育学 导师:苑璞 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 东北石油大学

Keywords

higher education, teaching methods, cognitive style, attention, cognitive

        教学质量是高等学校的生命线,高校的教学方法是影响高等教育教学质量的重要因素。学生的课堂学习效率是反映教学质量的一个重要指标,从学生掌握知识的角度来说,教学过程包含注意、感知、理解、保持和应用等一系列的认知阶段,教学方法是达成认知目标的基本条件。教学方法若能顺应学生的认知活动规律,则会极大地提高学生的学习效率,反之则会阻碍学生的认知发展,降低学习效率。本研究以探索教学方法对学生课堂学习效率的影响为出发点,以布鲁姆的教育目标分类理论及相关的认知心理学理论知识为基础,通过教学实验,实证分析传统的讲授法与小组讨论法教学对学生课堂学习认知产生的影响,并进行两种教学方法与学生认知风格之间的相关性分析。首先,通过课堂观察,探究两种教学方法的课堂中学生的注意力保持情况;其次,针对教学内容设计测试问卷,分析两种教学方法下学生对教学内容的记忆、理解和应用水平的差异性;最后,进一步对学生的认知风格、教学方法及学习成绩的相关性进行分析,探究不同认知风格与教学方法的匹配性。研究的最终目的是为高校教学方法的改革提供科学的依据,丰富课堂教学设计的理论基础,从而提高学生的课堂学习效率。研究结论显示:在使用讲授法教学时,学生课堂注意力保持水平相对较低,学生对教学内容的理解要略高于记忆;在使用讨论法教学的课堂中,学生注意力保持在相对高的水平,学生对教学内容的记忆要略高于理解;在注意力的维持和对教学内容的记忆方面,讨论法要明显的优于讲授法;两种教学方法对教学内容的理解和应用方面的影响差异性不显著。认知风格与教学方法的相关性分析结果显示,对场独立型认知风格的学生来说,不同教学方法对其学习效果存在显著的差异性影响,场独立型认知风格的学生在讨论法的课堂中能取得更好的学习效果;对于场依存型认知风格的学生,不同教学方法对其学习效果的影响差异性并不显著。
    Quality is the lifeline of higher education, the teaching method in Colleges and universities is an important factor that affects the quality of teaching in Higher Education. Classroom learning efficiency of students is an important index to reflect the quality of teaching, the students master the knowledge point of view, the teaching process include attention, perception, understanding, maintaining and using a series of cognitive stage, the teaching method is the basic conditions for a cognitive object. Law teaching method can adapt to students’ cognitive activities, will greatly improve the efficiency of student learning, cognitive development, otherwise it will hinder the students’ learning efficiency, reduce the learning efficiency. In this study to explore the effect of the teaching method of classroom learning efficiency of students as the starting point, to Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives and the related theories of cognitive psychology knowledge as the foundation, through the teaching experiment, the empirical analysis of teaching method and the traditional method group discussion teaching and learning effect of students’ cognition, analysis and the correlation between the two teaching methods and students’ cognitive styles. First of all, through classroom observation, inquiry of two kinds of teaching methods students’ attention; secondly, according to the teaching content design of questionnaire, analysis of differences between the students of two teaching methods of teaching contents of memory, understanding and application level; finally, a correlation between cognitive style and teaching methods for students and study results were analyzed, matching of different cognitive styles and teaching methods. The ultimate purpose of this research is to provide a scientific basis for the reform of teaching methods, enrich the theoretical basis of teaching design, so as to improve the students’ classroom learning efficiency.The conclusion of the study shows that: in the use of teaching methods, students’ attention on the relatively low level of students’ understanding of the teaching content, higher than the memory in use discussion method; classroom teaching, students’ attention is kept at a relatively high level of students in the teaching content, the understanding of memory is slightly higher than in the maintenance and attention; on the teaching content of memory, discussion method is obviously better than teaching method; influences the understanding and application of two kinds of teaching methods to the teaching content of the difference was not significant. Analysis of correlation between cognitive style and teaching methods of the results show that, for the field independent cognitive styles of students, different teaching methods on the learning effects exist significant differences in the impact of cognitive style, field independent students can achieve better learning effect in the discussion in the classroom; the field dependent cognitive style students, effects of different teaching methods to study the effect of the difference is not significant.
        
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