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老子政治思想研究

On Laozi’s Political Ideology

作者: 专业:思想政治教育 导师:刘鸿鹤 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Laozi, Imitation of Nature, Inaction, Populism, Drawbacks of civilization

        老子是中国古代杰出的政治思想家和哲学家。他的政治思想以“道”论和自然观为基础,以“无为而治”为核心,追求“小国寡民”式的理想社会。他的政治思想富有远见,对当时社会现实的反思深刻,且具有政治抗议精神。但老子的政治思想一直以来也饱受非议,或被认为是“役民之术”,或被认为保守、消极。本文力求从老子的“道法自然”、无为而治的民本思想及其对文明社会弊端的批判等三方面探析老子的政治思想。老子所讲的“道”既是万物之本原,又是社会与个人所应遵循的规律与准则。而道的本质在于顺应自然、在于谦下、虚静、无欲、无为。老子以此原理推及社会与政治生活,遂主张清静无为之治。老子无为而治的主张,意在告诫统治者要遏制自己的贪欲,不要侵害人民的利益,要减少税赋,损有余补不足,从而使人民得以休养生息。他的思想,体现了一种针对暴政的政治抗议精神,且继承与发扬了中国古代的民本主义。文明社会的发展所带来的影响和后果不仅有正面的,还有负面的,而老子对此有着敏锐的觉察与洞见。老子以殷代初民部落为理想、为镜鉴,就有如卢梭以自然状态为坐标,来揭示和批判文明的演进所带来的贫富分化、心灵的迷失和道德的沦丧。比较老子和卢梭那种超越地域、国度、文化和历史的界限而表达出的对于文明弊端的敏锐而深刻的洞见,则可以使我们更深刻地认识到人类在社会的发展和文明的演进中所遭遇的种种困境,激发我们的警醒和思考,使我们反省和矫正我们的实践,从而追求和建设一个公平正义、风俗淳美、人民友爱互助的和谐的社会。
    Laozi is an outstanding political thinker and philosopher in ancient China. His political theory based on the "Taoism" and the conception of nature, centering "Govern by Doing Nothing that Goes Against Nature", in the pursuit of the ideal society called"a small country with’few citizens ". His far-sighted political thought is a profound reflection of social reality with the spirit of political protest. However, Laozi’s political ideology has been much maligned, regarded as "the art of the served people," or considered as conservative and negative. The paper strives to explore Laozi’s political thought from three aspects:"Imitation of Nature", inaction in the thought of the people and the criticism of the civilized society. The paper tries to analyze Laozi’s political thought from "learn from nature", the people-based thought of "Govern by Doing Nothing that Goes Against Nature" and critical civilized society ills.The "Taoism" of Laozi is the origin of all things and the laws and guidelines which the society and individuals should follow. And the essence of the Tao lies in harmony with nature, modesty, void-quietness, no-desire, inaction. He applied this principle to the social and political life and advocated the "inaction". His ideas of inaction aimed to warn that the rulers should control their own greediness, insuring people’s interest with the reduction of taxes and the instructions from damage to more so that people could enjoy a peaceful life. His thought reflected the political protest spirit against despotic rule and developed the views of taking people as essence in ancient China.The development of the civilized society exerts a two-side implication and Laozi has a sharp sense and insight about this. Taking the tribalism of Yin Dynasty as a model, just as Rousseau took the unaffected society as a coordinate, Laozi revealed and criticized of the polarization of rich and poor, soul loss and moral deterioration accompanied with the evolution of civilizations. Both Laozi and Rousseau expressed the profound insight about the shortcoming of civilization, which surpassed the limitations of region, nation, culture and history. Through comparing this, we can have a deep understanding of all kinds of difficulties in the progress of human society, and pondered to improve our practice, so that we can build a harmonious society which boasts justice, good customs, fraternity and mutual assistance.
        

老子政治思想研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5
1 绪论8-11
    1.1 老子其人其文8
    1.2 国内外学术界对老子思想的研究现状8-10
        1.2.1 国外研究现状8-9
        1.2.2 国内研究现状9-10
    1.3 研究思路及创新点10-11
        1.3.1 研究思路10
        1.3.2 创新点10-11
2 老子政治思想的时代背景与理论渊源11-16
    2.1 时代背景11-13
    2.2 理论渊源13-16
        2.2.1 古之道术13-14
        2.2.2 远古文化14-16
3 老子政治思想的核心内容16-31
    3.1 老子的道法自然思想16-19
        3.1.1 老子的"道"论16-17
        3.1.2 老子的自然观17-18
        3.1.3 道法自然18-19
    3.2 老子无为而治的民本思想19-24
        3.2.1 民为邦本19-20
        3.2.2 无为之治20-24
    3.3 老子对文明社会弊端的批判——兼与卢梭比较24-31
        3.3.1 文明所带来的贫富分化与社会动荡24-26
        3.3.2 文明带来的人性的异化26-31
4 老子政治思想的历史影响和现实意义31-40
    4.1 老子政治思想的历史影响31
    4.2 老子政治思想的现实意义31-40
        4.2.1 老子思想对构建社会主义和谐社会的启示32-37
        4.2.2 老子的无为教化思想对思想政治教育育人的启示37-40
结论40-41
参考文献41-42
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况42-43
致谢43-45
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