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海上保险中保证法律制度研究

Study on the Warranty Law System in Marine Insurance

作者: 专业:经济法学 导师:袁雪 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨工程大学

Keywords

marine insurance, Warranty, utmost good faith, alteration of risk

        海上保险保证制度是最大诚信原则的具体体现,是保险人借以控制承保风险的重要手段,英国《1906年海上保险法》首次把海上保险保证确立为一项法律制度。但那时传统的保证制度,以被保险人履行义务的严格性和违反保证义务后果的严厉性而著称。海上保险保证制度最初设立的本意是维护保险人的利益。然而,在传统海上保险保证制度下,保险人的利益是得到了充分的维护,但却严重损害了被保险人的正当合法利益。当前,很多学者认为保证似乎已渐渐演变成保险人用以逃避保险责任的工具了,甚至有人怀疑海上保险保证带来的负面效应似乎超过了该制度应有的积极作用。为此,世界范围内掀起了一股扬弃、修正海上保险保证制度的热潮。我国《海商法》第235条提及了保证。而仅有的一条法律规定不仅不够完备,有时还有失严谨。可以说,我国目前尚不存在完备的海上保险保证制度。但是,另一方面,无论是从司法解释有关海上保险保证条款的规定来看,还是就保证本身的价值来看,可以肯定的是,我国不仅在事实上已经承认了保证条款在实践中的应用,更有意在海上保险法领域全面引入这一制度。众所周知,各国在完善本国保证制度的过程中,各有不同。我国也同样面临着如何构建与完善海上保险保证制度这一棘手的问题。本文的主体部分将以一些大家比较关注的焦点问题为讨论对象:比如,保证如何识别;违反保证的判断标准是否应当引入因果关系理论;我国是否该引入默示保证等;同时,本文对大陆法系的风险变更制度和英美法系的保证制度提出了“趋同论”,希望我们借鉴的是他们共同存在的最优质的地方,且淡话并放弃纠葛两者的差异。通过对以上问题的研究,立足我国自身的法律环境,以期从中探索保证制度在我国的应然模式。
    Warranty system in marine insurance, being as the principle reflection of utmost good faith, is an important method for the insurer to control the risks covered by insurance. The English Marine Insurance Act 1906 first established warranty system in marine insurance as a legislation. Traditional warranty system was known as strict to the insured and severe consequence for violating obligation. Warranty system in marine insurance was first established to preserve the insurer’s interests.Under this system, the insurer’s interests were fully considered while the lawful rights and interests of the insured were seriously damaged. Today, many scholars take warrant as a tool for insurer to avoid responsibility, somebody even think the negative effects of warranty system in marine insurance seem to exceed the corresponding positive effects. A trend was surged to modify the warranty system in marine insurance around the world.Warranty is only referred to in article 235 of maritime law in China. The only legal regulation is not only incomplete but also inexact. Our nation does not have a complete warranty system.On the other hand, considering the provisions contained in the judicial interpretation in relation to the issues concerning warranty and the value of this system, it could confirm that our country has already admit the application of warranty system in practice and intent to introduce this system into our marine insurance.As is known to all, there are many differences between different nations during the improvements of the warranty system.Our nation is also facing the problem that how to establish and improve warranty system in marine insurance. The main part of this paper focuses on some focal questions concerned by public as discussion objects, such as, how to identify warrant,whether or not there should exist causation after violating warrant, whether or not China should introduce the implied warranty, etc. meanwhile, this thesis hope to explorer the feasible model to apply warranty system to Chinese law from investigating these problems, which base on China’s law environment,
        

海上保险中保证法律制度研究

摘要5-6
Abstract6-7
第1章 绪论10-18
    1.1 论文写作的背景、目的及意义10-12
        1.1.1 论文写作背景10-11
        1.1.2 论文写作目的及意义11-12
    1.2 国内外研究现状12-16
        1.2.1 国外研究现状12-15
        1.2.2 国内研究现状15-16
    1.3 论文的基本结构16-17
    1.4 论文的研究方法17
    1.5 论文的创新之处17-18
第2章 传统海上保险中的保证制度18-33
    2.1 海上保险中保证制度的历史发展和理论基础18-24
        2.1.1 海上保险保证制度的历史发展18-19
        2.1.2 海上保险保证制度的理论基础19-24
    2.2 海上保险中保证的定义24-25
    2.3 海上保险中保证的特征25-26
    2.4 投保人的诚信义务——告知与保证26-28
    2.5 保证的种类28-30
    2.6 违反保证的法律后果30-31
    2.7 本章小结31-33
第3章 现代海上保险中的保证制度的发展及各国的相关规定33-44
    3.1 现代海上保险业务中发生的变化33-34
    3.2 代表性国家关于保证制度规定的变化34-38
        3.2.1 英美—改为条件34-36
        3.2.2 澳大利亚做法—改为合同明示条款36
        3.2.3 德国和挪威的做法—风险变更制度36-38
    3.3 大陆法系风险变更制度与英美法系保证制度的比较分析38-42
        3.3.1 两种立法学说的本质区别38-39
        3.3.2 两大法系思想内涵的相通之处39-42
    3.4 本章小结42-44
第4章 对我国海上保险中保证制度的评述44-52
    4.1 我国海上保险中保证制度的立法状况44-46
    4.2 我国海上保险中保证制度的司法实践状况46-49
    4.3 我国海上保险中保证制度的缺陷49-50
    4.4 本章小结50-52
第5章 我国海上保险中保证制度的完善52-60
    5.1 引进风险变更制度之否定52-53
    5.2 完善我国海上保险中保证制度的建议53-59
        5.2.1 关于保证的识别53-54
        5.2.2有关默示保证54
        5.2.3 关于因果关系问题54-55
        5.2.4 有关规定具体化的问题55-59
    5.3 本章小结59-60
结论60-62
参考文献62-67
攻读硕士期间发表的论文和取得的科研成果67-68
致谢68
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