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以人为本的哲学视角研究

The Research on People-oriented Ideology from Philosophy Perspective

作者: 专业:马克思主义基本原理 导师:王阵军 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 哈尔滨工程大学

Keywords

people, people-orientation, humanism, the nature of people, the philosophical perspective

        以人为本思想作为科学发展观的本质与核心,成为党领导人民进行社会主义现代化建设的理论基础,在马克思主义的理论视域下,党提出的以人为本思想,必然有着中国特色的内涵和价值。本文以马克思主义哲学为基础,从以人为本的思想渊源,以人为本的哲学依据,以人为本的哲学反思及对当代社会的哲学启示四个方面进行了分析和探讨。本文从哲学角度研究以人为本,着重回答了两个关键性的问题:什么是以人为本?以人的什么为本?人本主义在经历了文艺复兴和启蒙运动的发展之后,在黑格尔、康德那里达到了巅峰,但在近代理性主义的影响下,它却走向了狭隘的道路。马克思在批判地继承前人的观点上,以历史唯物主义为基础,为人本主义开辟了一条崭新的道路。在中国,影响中国两千多年的传统民本思想在近代被马克思人本观所取代。对以往的人本思想进行分析、比较、反思、批判,可以发现“人”和“本”在不同历史时期具有不同的含义,以人为本正是在这一点上区别于其他人本思想。以人为本作为一种思想体系,它必然会对中国当代的社会、政治、经济、文化等方面产生深远的影响,本文主要从这四个角度上为以人为本找到哲学依据,实际上也是在探讨人与自然、人与社会、人与人之间关系。怎样处理好上述关系,也就是怎样处理人与自然的对立统一关系,怎样理解社会主义基本价值观,怎样看待个人在这个世界上的地位、价值和功能。
    As the nature and the core of scientific concept of development, the ideology of people-orientation is the theoretical foundation for the Party leading people to build up socialist modernization. Under the theoretical field of vision of Marxism, the ideology of people-orientation proposed by the Party is noted for its Chinese characteristics and value. Based on the Marxism Philosophy, the ideological origins of people-orientation, the philosophical foundation of people-orientation, the philosophical reflection of people-orientation and the philosophical enlightenment are analyzed and explored in the thesis.In the thesis, people-orientation is studied from the perspective of philosophy, and the following two issues are solved. What is people-orientation? What is oriented? Having undergone the development of Renaissance and Enlightenment, humanism reaches its peak by effort of Hegel and Kant, however, influenced by the neoteric rationalism, it follows a narrow and callow way. Based on the historical materialism, Marx inherits former views in a critical way and opens up a new way for the study of humanism. In China, the traditional people-based thought which has exerted a great influence on Chinese for more than two thousand years is displaced by Marx Humanism in modern times. By way of analysis, comparison, reflection and criticizing, it could be found that "people" and "orientation" have different meanings in different period of history. And people-orientation is just distinctive form other ideology of humanism from this perspective. As a system of ideology, people-orientation will definitely exert a significant influence on the society, politics, economy, and culture of Chinese contemporary. The thesis aims at finding the philosophical foundation for the people-orientation from the above four aspects, which is actually a practicing activity of discussing the relation between people and the nature, the relation between people and the society, and the relation among the people. The solvement of the above relations is actually the process of how to cope with the relation of the unity of opposites between people and the nature, how to understand the socialism viewpoint of value, and how to view our status, value and function in the world.
        

以人为本的哲学视角研究

摘要7-8
ABSTRACT8-9
第1章 绪论10-17
    1.1 本文的研究背景10-11
    1.2 本文的研究意义11-12
    1.3 国内外研究现状综述12-15
    1.4 本文研究的主要内容15
    1.5 本文的研究方法和创新之处15-17
第2章 以人为本的思想渊源17-35
    2.1 西方传统文化中的人本思想17-23
        2.1.1 文艺复兴时期:人文主义17-19
        2.1.2 启蒙运动时期:人道主义19-21
        2.1.3 德国古典哲学:人本主义21-23
    2.2 中国传统文化中的人本思想23-27
        2.2.1 “民为邦本”的民本思想23-25
        2.2.2 “天人合一”的和谐思想25-27
    2.3 马克思主义人本观27-34
        2.3.1 现实的人27-29
        2.3.2 实践的人29-30
        2.3.3 自由的人30-32
        2.3.4 全面发展的人32-34
    2.4 本章小结34-35
第3章 以人为本的哲学依据35-47
    3.1 历史哲学视角的考察35-38
    3.2 政治哲学视角的考察38-41
    3.3 经济哲学视角的考察41-43
    3.4 文化哲学视角的考察43-45
    3.5 本章小结45-47
第4章 以人为本的哲学反思47-56
    4.1 技术理性对人文精神的背离47-50
    4.2 人类中心主义对人的错误定位50-52
    4.3 资本主义工业对人的异化52-55
    4.4 本章小结55-56
第5章 以人为本的哲学精神56-64
    5.1 以人为本是一种价值取向56-58
    5.2 以人为本是一种思想启蒙58-60
    5.3 以人为本是一种实践理念60-63
    5.4 本章小结63-64
结论64-65
参考文献65-69
攻读硕士学位期间发表的论文和取得的研究成果69-70
致谢70
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