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新农村建设背景下农村劳动力转移的影响因素研究

The Factors of Rural Labor Shifting at the Background of New Rural Construction

作者: 专业:社会学 导师:钟涨宝 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 华中农业大学

Keywords

New Country Construction, Rural labor force, transfer, factors

        随着中国工业化、现代化、城镇化进程的不断加快,越来越多的农村劳动力离开农村转移到城镇工作。本文以理性选择理论和人力资本理论等社会学、经济学理论为支撑点,综合运用问卷调查以及个案访谈的实证研究方法,以湖北省监利县的四个村为调查地点,以新农村建设为背景,对农村劳动力转移的现状进行了描述,分析了农村劳动力转移的特征,并对影响农村劳动力转移的宏、微观因素进行了研究,提出了促进农村劳动力转移的若干建议。本研究的具体研究内容主要有:一是描述农村劳动力转移的现状,并对农村劳动力转移的特征进行分析;二是分析影响农村劳动力转移的宏观外部因素;三是分析影响农村劳动力转移的微观个体因素;四是根据本文的研究结论,提出促进农村劳动力转移的若干政策和建议。通过问卷调查,结合个案访谈以及国家统计局相关统计资料,本研究得出的研究结论主要有:首先,通过实地研究,结合国家统计局的统计资料探讨农村劳动力转移的产业流向,指出农村劳动力由第一产业流向第二、三产业。农村劳动力转移到城镇后,大多数从事建筑业、制造业以及服务业等非农产业。其次,农村劳动力的地域流向以外省为主。湖北等中西部经济发展落后,能提供的工作岗位有限,广东等外省经济比较发达,能够提供更多的就业机会,农村劳动力转移的地域大多数选择沿海省市。再次,国家制度政策因素成为影响农村劳动力转移的根本因素,另外经济、科学技术、社会文化等宏观外部因素也影响到农村劳动力的转移。国家制度政策对农村劳动力的转移的影响存在两面性,国家制度政策一方面促进了农村劳动力的转移,另一方面,制度政策的某些不合理方面阻碍了农村劳动力的转移。经济发展,科学技术水平进步对农村劳动力的转移具有促进作用。最后,农村劳动力的个人特征如性别、年龄、婚姻状况以及劳动者的教育程度、家庭构成、身体状况等微观个体因素影响到农村劳动力的转移。男性、受教育程度高,身体状况好的青年劳动力更容易实现转移,但是婚姻状况对农村劳动力转移的影响并不是很显著,家庭构成对女性劳动力的影响比男性劳动力大。
    With the accelerating of the industrialization, the modernization and the urbanization, more and more rural labor force have shifted from rural areas to cities and towns. In this paper, based on the sociology and economic theory such as the rational choice theory and the human capital theory, the author has combined the empirical research methods, surveys and the interviews, in the four villages of Jianli County, Hubei to investigate the status of rural labor transfer, analyze its feature and the macro and micro factors which affect on it on the background of the new rural construction Background. At last, the author has proposed a number of recommendations to accelerate the transfer of rural labor force.Specific research of this study mainly contains:first the description of the status of the transfer of rural labor and the analysis of the characteristics of it; second the analysis on the macro-external factors of the transfer of rural labor force; third analysis on the micro-individual factors of the transfer of rural labor force; fourth a number of policies and recommendations for this phenomenon, according to the article’s conclusions.Through the questionnaires, the interviews and the related information from National Bureau of Statistics, the conclusions are mainly:Firstly, through field research and the information from National Bureau of Statistics, the author found that rural labor are shifting from the primary industry to the secondary and the tertiary industry. After shifting to cities and towns, most rural labor force works on the non-agricultural industries such as the construction, the manufacturing and the services.Secondly, most of rural labor force has flowed outside their province. The developing central and western areas such as Hubei province just provide limited jobs. But some relatively developed areas such as Guangdong province can provide more employment opportunities. So the majority of the rural labor transfers to the coastal provinces.In addition, the national policy system factors are fundamental factors of influencing of rural labor transfer.At the same time, other overall external factors such as Economy, science and technology, society and culture also affect the transfer of rural labor force. The influence of national system of policy on the transfer of rural labor force has two sides. On one hand, the national system of policy can promote the transfer of rural labor force; on the other hand, some irrational aspects of the system can hinder the transfer of rural labor force. Economic development and the progress of scientific and technological level entirely play a catalytic role on the transfer of rural labor.Finally, the personal characteristics of rural labor force such as gender, age, marital status, and workers’education level, family composition, health and other micro individual factors have influence on the transfer of rural labor force. We can conclude that the male, younger, highly educated workforce with good health is easier to achieve transfer, and the influence of the marital status of the rural labor force is not very significant. In addition, the influence of family composition on the impact of female labor force is bigger than the male labor force.
        

新农村建设背景下农村劳动力转移的影响因素研究

目录4-6
摘要6-7
Abstract7-8
1 绪论9-24
    1.1 研究背景9-10
    1.2 研究的目的和意义10-11
        1.2.1 研究的目的10
        1.2.2 研究的意义10-11
    1.3 文献综述11-17
        1.3.1 国外研究综述11-13
        1.3.2 国内研究综述13-16
        1.3.3 研究述评16-17
    1.4 研究设计17-23
        1.4.1 理论依据17-18
        1.4.2 核心概念的界定18-19
        1.4.3 研究内容19-20
        1.4.4 研究假设20
        1.4.5 研究方法20-22
        1.4.6 研究框架22
        1.4.7 研究的创新性22
        1.4.8 调查地点及样本的基本情况22-23
    1.5 本章小结23-24
2 农村劳动力转移的现状及特征分析24-30
    2.1 农村劳动力转移的现状24-26
    2.2 农村劳动力转移的特征分析26-28
        2.2.1 农村外出从业的劳动力数量大,总数呈上升趋势26
        2.2.2 农村劳动力转移的目的地以省外为主26-27
        2.2.3 农村劳动力由第一产业流向第二、第三产业27-28
    2.3 农村外出从业劳动力寻找工作的途径单一28-29
    2.4 本章小结29-30
3 影响农村劳动力转移的宏观外部因素分析30-35
    3.1 政策制度因素30-31
    3.2 经济因素31-33
    3.3 科技因素33
    3.4 社会因素33-34
    3.5 本章小结34-35
4 影响农村劳动力转移的微观个体因素分析35-40
    4.1 劳动力的个人特征35-36
    4.2 劳动力的教育程度36-38
    4.3 劳动者的家庭构成38-39
    4.4 劳动者的身体状况39
    4.5 本章小结39-40
5 结论和建议40-43
    5.1 结论40-41
    5.2 政策和建议41-42
    5.3 研究不足42-43
主要参考文献43-46
致谢46-47
附录1 调查问卷47-50
附录2 访谈提纲50
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