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建国以来党的城镇化政策及实践研究

Since The Founding of The Party’s Policy And Practice Research of Urbanization

作者: 专业:中共党史 导师:东波 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 东北石油大学

Keywords

since the founding of PRC, urbanization policies, Urbanization practi ce, New-style urbanization, In situ urbanization

        新中国成立以来,我国城镇化进入一个新世纪,回顾走过的路,以改革开放为分界点,我国的城镇化大致分为两个大的时期,从建国以来的政府单一力量主导变为改革开放后政府、市场、社会多元力量共同推动城镇化建设,我国的城镇化率在稳步提升。21世纪以来,我国进入全面建设小康社会和加快推进社会主义现代化建设的新时期。加快城镇化速度,提高城镇化质量,增强我国城镇化可持续发展的动力,进而统筹城乡发展是当前我们实现国家繁荣富强和伟大复兴的重要内容。本课题以建国以来我国城镇化政策的演变和实践探索为课题研究的主要内容和切入点,以改革开放为分界点系统梳理和分析中国共产党在不同历史时期城镇化政策的演变规律。分析从建国初期的工业发展、规划城市建设到调整建制镇、控制城市人口,再到知识青年上山下乡的“逆城镇化”政策的曲折变化历程。改革开放后放开建制镇控制、消除制度障碍,到加强小城镇建设,再到大中小城市协调发展的政策,这些政策制定推进了我国城镇化的进程,但同样也产生了一些负面作用。建国以来中国共产党城镇化实践探索按时间先后大致分为工业化起步时期的城镇化、跃进性工业化带来的高速城镇化、两次“逆城镇化”,到改革开放后的农村改革、城市改革和市场经济改革促进的城镇化,一直到如今的新型城镇化的发展。重点指出中国这样一个人口众多且城镇化日渐成熟的国家,新农村建设是小城镇化的一种重要表现方式,推进城镇化不仅是推动农村人口向城市的转移,而更应该鼓励和促进“就地城镇化”,对于不愿意去城市的农民,就地城镇化是很好的选择。通过加强新农村建设,包括对乡镇企业管理制度的调整和村容村貌的改善,增加农民的收入,提高农民的文化素质,开阔他们的视野,转变他们的观念,改变他们的生产生活方式,让农民能够自愿地保留传统农村文化习俗的同时实现市民身份的转变。
    Since the establishment of People’s Republic of China(PRC), the urbanization of our country has entered a new era. Looking back the road we’ve traveled, China’s urbanization can be roughly divided into two major periods separated by reform and opening up—one is between the founding of PRC to reform and opening up when urbanization is merely government-dominated, the other is the period after reform and opening up when urbanization is driven by multiple forces including government, market and society. Our country’s urbanization rate is rising steadily. Stepping into the 21 st century, China has entered a new stage to build a moderately prosperous society in all aspects and accelerate the construction of socialist modernization. Accelerating the process of urbanization, improving urbanization quality, enhancing sustainable development ability of urbanization and balancing urban and rural development constitutes a very important part to our country along the path to become strong and prosperous and realize great rejuvenation.Based on the research topic of policy evolution and practical exploration of Chinese urbanization, the paper systematically combs and analyzes the historical evolution regularity of China’s urbanization in different historical periods. It analyzes the changing process from the industrial development, city planning and urban construction to adjusting organic town and controlling urban population, to "inverse urbanization" policy of Educated Urban Youth Going and Working in the Countryside and Mountain in early years of new China. After the reform and opening up, China adopts policies to eliminate the institutional barriers, strengthen the construction of small towns, and coordinate the development of large, medium and small cities, which push forward the urbanization progress. Since the founding of PRC, the practical exploration of urbanization by the communist party of China can be roughly divided into the following phases in chronological sequence:urbanization at the starting period of industrialization, rapid urbanization brought by explosive industrialization, two "inverse urbanization", urbanization driven by rural reform, urban reform and market economic reform,new-style urbanization of the current time. The paper highlights that China as a nation with a large population and gradually mature urbanization, new rural construction is an important representation of small-towns urbanization, promoting urbanization is not only driving rural population to the cities, but also encouraging and promoting "in situ urbanization" which is a good choice for farmers who are unwilling to go to cities. By strengthening the constructionof new countryside which includes adjusting management system for township enterprises and improving village environment and appearance, urbanization aims to increase farmers’ income, improve farmers’ cultural quality, expand their horizon, change ideology, change their production method and lifestyle, letting farmers realize identity transformation while voluntarily preserving excellent traditional rural customs.
        
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