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中国服务业集聚效应的区域比较研究

—— 基于劳动生产率的视角
Research on Regional Comparison Agglomeration Effects of Service Industry in China

作者: 专业:产业经济学 导师:原毅军 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Services Agglomeration, Agglomeration Structure, Agglomeration Effects, Regional Disparity

        产业集聚与劳动生产率的增长是一个相伴相生的过程。在产业集聚理论中,集聚对劳动生产率的影响被归为集聚效应的一种。适当规模和结构的产业集聚能够扩大产业范围,产生正向的集聚效应;反之,则容易导致集聚的扩散,产生负向的集聚效应。在经济全球化的背景下,服务业比重不断上升是一个得到普遍认可的规律,服务业集聚成为人们广泛关注的经济现象。近年来,我国服务业集聚呈现出由东部沿海向中西部内陆扩展的趋势,各地区政府纷纷出台鼓励服务业集聚发展的政策措施以提高区域服务业的竞争力。正因为如此,考察我国服务业集聚的效应并进行区域比较,成为服务经济时代值得剖析的现实问题。作为一种空间企业组织形式,学术界把产业集聚划分为两种形式,同一产业类型的产业集聚和不同产业类型的产业集聚。前者也被称为专业化产业集聚,后者又被称为多样化产业集聚。不同的集聚结构会产生不同的集聚效应,本文正是基于产业集聚效应理论,考察两种服务业集聚结构对服务业劳动生产率的影响。具体方法是,在概念界定和理论阐述的基础上,通过生产函数的推导分别构建服务业专业化集聚和多样化集聚经济效应的计量经济学模型,并使用1996年-2008年中国省级面板数据进行实证分析。在考察了全国服务业集聚效应之后,按行政区划将中国划分为东北、华北、华东、华南、华中、西北和西南7大区域,分别考察区域服务业集聚效应并进行比较,得出实证结果。通过理论分析和实证研究,本文得出一些主要结论。一是在全国范围内,两种集聚结构的集聚效应恰好相反,专业化集聚的效应显著为正,多样化集聚的效应显著为负。在7个地区中,专业化集聚效应显著为正,除华东地区外其他地区多样化集聚效应显著为负。二是两种集聚结构下,华东地区的集聚效应都排在所有地区的首位,华中地区的排序都较为靠后。计量经济方法具有较强的政策倾向性,基于实证研究的主要结论,本文最后提出了推动服务业专业化集聚发展、注重服务业与制造业配套发展以及加强中部地区服务业集聚发展的政策建议。
    Labor productivity growth is a concomitant of industry agglomeration. In the theory of industrial agglomeration, the agglomeration’s influence on labor productivity is also called one of the agglomeration effects. Appropriate size and structure of industrial agglomeration will expand the scope of industry and generate positive agglomeration effects. Conversely, it will easily cause the diffusion of industrial agglomeration and produce negative effects. In the circumstances of economic globalization, the increasing proportion of services has become a generally accepted rule, and it also makes a wide range of concerns about the phenomenon of services agglomeration. In recent years, the services agglomeration shows an expanding trend from east coast to central& western inland, regional governments issued a serious of measures which encouraging the development of services agglomeration in order to enhance the competitiveness of local services. That is why we consider agglomeration effects of service industry in china as a practical issue which worth analyzing in service economy times.As a spatial form of enterprise organization, there are two structures of industrial agglomeration academically. One is agglomeration of the same type of industry, which is also called localization agglomeration. The other one is agglomeration of different type of industries, which is also called urbanization agglomeration. Different structures make different effects, based on the theory of industrial agglomeration, this thesis examines the influence of two agglomeration structures on labor productivity. The specific framework is as followed. On the basis of definition of core concepts and theoretical explanation, we establish the econometric models of localization agglomeration and urbanization agglomeration respectively by deriving production function, and then use panel data from 1996 to 2008 on province level in China to analyze empirically. After studying the overall agglomeration effects, we divide our country into seven regions, Northeast, North China, East China, South China, Central China, Northwest and Southwest. By examining and comparing the regional agglomeration effects, we obtain the empirical result.We get some main conclusions through theoretical analysis and empirical research. For one thing, in the whole country, the agglomeration effects under two structures are just on the contrary, the localization agglomeration effect is significantly positive, whereas the urbanization agglomeration effect is significantly negative. In seven regions, the localization agglomeration effect is significantly positive, whereas the urbanization agglomeration effect is significantly negative except East China. For another thing, in regional comparison under two structures, the effects in East China are higher than that of in other regions, the effects in Central China are lower than other regions relatively. As the econometric method has a strong policy orientation, we put forward some counter proposals at last, such as promoting the localization agglomeration of service industry, focusing on the match of services and manufacturing industries and strengthen the agglomeration development of services in Central China.
        

中国服务业集聚效应的区域比较研究

摘要4-5
Abstract5-6
1 绪论9-21
    1.1 问题的提出与选题意义9-12
        1.1.1 问题的提出9-11
        1.1.2 问题的界定11
        1.1.3 选题意义11-12
    1.2 核心概念界定12-14
        1.2.1 服务业集聚12-13
        1.2.2 产业集聚效应13-14
    1.3 国内外相关研究综述14-17
        1.3.1 国外相关研究14-16
        1.3.2 国内相关研究16-17
    1.4 研究框架、方法和预期创新点17-21
        1.4.1 研究框架及技术路线17-20
        1.4.2 研究方法20
        1.4.3 预期创新点20-21
2 产业集聚与劳动生产率的关系21-29
    2.1 产业集聚的形式与特征21-24
        2.1.1 专业化产业集聚21-23
        2.1.2 多样化产业集聚23-24
    2.2 专业化产业集聚与劳动生产率的关系24-27
        2.2.1 专业化产业集聚效应的影响因素24-25
        2.2.2 专业化集聚的劳动生产率效应25-27
    2.3 多样化产业集聚与劳动生产率的关系27-29
        2.3.1 多样化产业集聚效应的影响因素27-28
        2.3.2 多样化集聚的劳动生产率效应28-29
3 服务业集聚效应衡量模型的构建29-36
    3.1 中国服务业集聚的生产率效应特征29-31
        3.1.1 专业化集聚的生产率效应特征29-30
        3.1.2 多样化集聚的生产率效应特征30-31
    3.2 模型构建思路及研究假设31-33
        3.2.1 模型构建思路31-32
        3.2.2 研究假设32-33
    3.3 模型构建与变量说明33-36
        3.3.1 模型构建33
        3.3.2 变量说明33-36
4 中国服务业集聚效应区域比较的实证研究36-47
    4.1 样本选取与数据搜集36-37
        4.1.1 样本选取36
        4.1.2 数据搜集36-37
    4.2 专业化集聚效应的实证结果与分析37-42
        4.2.1 描述性统计分析37
        4.2.2 全国服务业集聚效应结果与分析37-39
        4.2.3 区域服务业集聚效应结果与比较39-42
    4.3 多样化集聚效应的实证结果与分析42-47
        4.3.1 描述性统计分析42-43
        4.3.2 全国服务业集聚效应结果与分析43-44
        4.3.3 区域服务业集聚效应结果与比较44-47
5 研究结论、政策建议与研究展望47-50
    5.1 研究结论47-48
    5.2 政策建议48-49
    5.3 研究展望49-50
参考文献50-53
附录A 中国各省区服务业专业化集聚水平(1996-2008)53-55
附录B 中国各省区服务业多样化集聚水平(1996-2008)55-57
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况57-58
致谢58-60
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