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辅助生殖技术之伦理反思

The Ethical Thinking of Assisted Reproductive Technology

作者: 专业:伦理学 导师:文成伟 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 大连理工大学

Keywords

Assisted Reproductive Technology, Ethical Issues, the Rational Thinking

        由于受到环境污染、工作压力、不良生活习惯等因素的影响,患有不孕不育疾病的夫妇数量正在逐年增加。针对这种现象,科学家和医学工作者努力探索,使辅助生殖技术获得了前所未有的发展。辅助生殖技术的出现和不断进步的确给不孕不育患者带来了福音,但是随之出现的诸多伦理问题也给社会传统的伦理观念带来了巨大的冲击。如何充分地研究和恰当地应用辅助生殖技术,成为医学工作者当前面临的热点问题。因此我们要对辅助生殖技术所带来的伦理问题进行理性反思。文章首先介绍了选题背景与研究意义,以及国内外学术界对辅助生殖技术伦理争议的探析。其次,概述了辅助生殖技术的发展历程,着重分析了人工受精、试管婴儿、代孕母亲等三种技术类型及其社会效用。再次,总结梳理了各种辅助生殖技术在应用过程中产生的争议较大的伦理问题。从个体伦理、家庭伦理和社会伦理三个方面进行了阐述。然后,探讨了产生上述伦理问题的原因,主要是由思维方式的差异、价值观的冲突与生命观的改变所造成的。最后,找出相应的伦理对策。建议尊重传统伦理规范的合理部分,协调伦理规范与辅助生殖技术发展之间的关系,遵循应用过程中的伦理原则等。揭示出人类的生育方式会随着辅助生殖技术的发展日趋多样化,如果对辅助生殖技术发展的管理不当,将会给人类带来巨大的灾难。因此在发展辅助生殖技术的同时,有必要不断完善相关的伦理规范,提升医务工作者的责任感,并充分发挥法律的监督作用来规范人们的行为。
    Because of the influence of environmental pollution, working pressure, bad living habits and other factors, the number that couples get into trouble of infertility is increasing with years. In view of existing situation, numerous scientists and medical staffs have made great efforts in this field, which have promoted Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) a great progress that there has never been. Though Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can benefit couples who cannot have a baby, a great many of consequent ethics issues have brought profound effect on traditional ethics. Therefore it is the hot issues that how to study ART adequately and exercise it properly. We need to rethink the ethical issues that are caused by ART.Firstly, the paper introduces its background, the significance, and the viewpoints at home and abroad on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Secondly, the paper summarizes the development of ART, especially the following three technologies’social utility:the artificial insemination, test-tube baby, and surrogate mother. Thirdly, the paper analyses the more controversial issues during the practice of ART, which expounds from the individual ethics, the family ethics and the social ethics. Fourthly, the paper explains the reasons which cause the ethical questions, which contains the difference of mode of thinking, the conflict of value, and the change of view of life. At last, the paper discusses the corresponding ethical measure. We must respect the reasonable parts of traditional ethical norms with ART, and coordinate the ethical norms and the development of ART. Because the ways of reproducing will be diversified with the development of ART, if we cannot control the technology exactly, it will bring disaster to human. In conclusion, when we use the ART, we need to improve related ethical norms, promote the medical staffs sense of responsibility, and make good use of the law to supervise our action.
        

辅助生殖技术之伦理反思

摘要4-5
Abstract5
1 绪论8-12
    1.1 选题背景和研究意义8-9
    1.2 国内外研究现状9-11
    1.3 研究思路和研究方法11-12
2 辅助生殖技术概述12-16
    2.1 辅助生殖技术的发展历程12-14
        2.1.1 人工受精12-13
        2.1.2 试管婴儿13
        2.1.3 代孕母亲13-14
    2.2 辅助生殖技术的社会效用14-16
3 辅助生殖技术引发的伦理问题16-24
    3.1 对个体伦理的影响16-18
        3.1.1 胚胎的地位如何确定16-17
        3.1.2 孩子是否具有知情权17
        3.1.3 代孕母亲是否受到剥削17-18
    3.2 对家庭伦理的冲击18-20
        3.2.1 传统家庭模式的改变18-19
        3.2.2 婚姻与生育的分离19
        3.2.3 亲子关系的破裂19-20
    3.3 对社会伦理的挑战20-24
        3.3.1 生殖技术滥用及分配公正性问题20-21
        3.3.2 名人精子库的危机21
        3.3.3 精子商业化的危机21-22
        3.3.4 代孕母亲商业化的危机22-24
4 辅助生殖技术伦理问题的原因24-29
    4.1 思维方式的差异24-26
    4.2 价值观的冲突26
    4.3 生命观的改变26-29
5 辅助生殖技术的伦理对策29-37
    5.1 尊重传统伦理规范的合理部分29-30
    5.2 协调伦理规范与辅助生殖技术发展之间的关系30-33
    5.3 遵循辅助生殖技术发展及应用的伦理原则33-35
    5.4 规范医疗机构及相关医务人员的行为35-37
结论37-38
参考文献38-40
攻读硕士学位期间发表学术论文情况40-41
致谢41-43
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