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中国道教社会思想研究

作者: 专业:宗教学 导师:卞谦 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 广西师范学院

Keywords

Taoism, social thought, to teach the world thought, world relief thinking, Peace and Prosperity Thought

        道教是中国土生土长的宗教,在中华民族的历史进程中对民众的生活方式、行为习惯、思维模式产生了极其广泛而深刻的影响。道教的社会思想是道教思想的重要组成部分,它继承了老庄道家社会思想,以“道”为本,以“无为而治”为具体的施政方法,并充分吸纳儒家的纲常伦理、礼仪规范和墨家的兼爱互利、天志明鬼等思想,从而使其社会思想具有兼容并包的特征。道教的社会思想主要包括教世思想、济世思想和治世思想这三个核心理念:教世思想以“天道承负”和“道性遍在”为理论依据,教导世人在现实层面上要积德行善、广造福田,在超越层面上要逍遥自在、与道合一;济世思想以道生万物的生命平等观为依据,在具体的宗教实践中,道门中人以“齐同慈爱”的精神积极济世度人,并在政治实践中充分践行其济世思想;治世思想以“道法自然”的本体论为依据,以“无为而治”为主要的治世方式,在具体施政方略上,实行轻政减刑、与民休息的政策,并融合其他学派“有为”的社会治理思想,对中国古代的政治生活产生了巨大的影响。道教的教世思想、济世思想和治世思想构成了道教社会思想的主体,在历史上对维系社会稳定,增强社会凝聚力,提升国民道德素质、精神境界发挥了巨大的作用。在现代社会,如果我们能够去伪存真,充分发挥道教社会思想的积极因素,其必将走出历史的沉寂,为我们现代社会的发展稳定提供有益的借鉴。
    Taoism is China’s native religion in the historical process of the Chinese nation on the people way of life, behavior, thinking produces an extremely broad and profound impact. Taoism Taoism social thought is an important part, it inherited a Taoist social thinking, "Road" oriented, "Doing Nothing" as a specific policy approach, and fully absorb the Confucian Gangchanglunli, etiquette and Mo Zi’s universal love and mutual benefit, such as thinking day Zhiming ghosts, so it has the inclusive features of social thought. Taoist ideas include teaching the world of social thought, world relief ideas and Peace and Prosperity thought the three core concepts: ideas to teach the world to "take the responsibility of Heaven" and "Road of times in" as the theoretical basis, teaching level in the real world to good deeds widely for the benefit of field, beyond the level to travel freely, and the Tao; world relief thought to Dawson Equality of all things of life, based on specific religious practice, the door to the human "common love," the spirit of actively serve our community deliver people, and in political practice, thinking of the full practice of their world relief; Peace and Prosperity thinking of "Imitation of Nature" ontology based on the "inaction" of Peace and Prosperity as the main way of specific policy strategy, the implementation of light G commutation, and the public policy of rest, and integration of other schools, "promising" ideas of social governance, the political life of ancient China had a tremendous impact. Taoist ideas to teach the world, serve our community ideas and Peace and Prosperity thought of which the main body of social thought of Taoism, the history of the maintenance of social stability and social cohesion, improve the quality of the national moral and spiritual realm to play a huge role. In modern society, if we can eliminate the false and retain the true, give full play to the positive factors in social thought of Taoism, the history of the silence out of his will, for the stable development of our modern society to provide useful lessons.
        

中国道教社会思想研究

摘要4-6
ABSTRACT6-7
绪论10-14
    一、研究缘起及意义10-11
    二、研究现状11-13
    三、论文主要内容、方法及创新13-14
第一章 道教社会思想的理论基础14-29
    第一节 道、儒、墨家的社会思想14-23
        一、无为而治的道家思想14-16
        二、“德化天下”的儒家思想16-20
        三、“现实”与“非现实”两极互动的墨家思想20-23
    第二节 道教对传统社会思想的整合23-29
        一、道教对道家社会思想的吸纳和整合23-25
        二、道教对儒家社会思想的继承和发展25-27
        三、道教对墨家思想的继承27-29
第二章 道教“劝善止恶、积功累德”的教世思想29-37
    第一节 教世思想的理论依据:“承负说”和“道性论”30-31
    第二节 清净寡欲、积功累德:道教的尘世之路31-34
    第三节 逍遥自在、洒脱无羁:道教的超世之途34-37
第三章 道教齐同慈爱的济世思想37-47
    第一节 济世思想的依据:“大道废”和“生道合一”37-39
    第二节 济世思想的特点39-43
        一、济度范围广泛化40-41
        二、济度主体的自身修为41-42
        三、济度层次分明42
        四、济度内容双重化42-43
    第三节 道教方术中的济世实践43-45
    第四节 济世精神在政治领域的延伸与扩展45-47
第四章 道教因任自然、无为而治的治世思想47-61
    第一节 治世思想的依据:“道法自然”的本体论47-48
    第二节 治世思想的具体内容48-53
        一、道法自然、无为而治48-51
        二、对“有为”之法兼容并包51-53
    第三节 治世思想的两个维度:王权与民众53-57
        一、王权层面:神化王权和等级制度54-55
        二、民众层面:整合俗神信仰,贴近世俗生活55-57
    第四节 治世思想的目标:太平世界与天宫仙境57-61
余论61-63
参考文献63-64
致谢64-65
附录65
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