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萨特实践观与马克思实践观之比较

The Comparison of Sartre’s Parctical View with Marx’s

作者: 专业:马克思主义哲学 导师:覃明兴 年度:2010 学位:硕士  院校: 广西师范学院

Keywords

Sartre, Marx, Practice, Dialectical reason

        本文采用文本学解读方法,以“实践”范畴为切入点,集中对萨特《辩证理性批判》作一个批判性考察。在此基础上,运用比较研究的方法,分析萨特实践观与马克思实践观的异同,以厘清两者之间的逻辑关系。本文认为,萨特的实践的整体化就是辩证法。萨特“实践”概念的首要特征就是它的“辩证性”,而辩证性也是马克思实践观的重要特征。其次是实践的“整体化”特征,而“整体化”同时也是马克思汲取自黑格尔辩证法中的重要内容,是“真理对自己整体化”;再次,萨特认为实践产生哲学、负载着哲学性并被哲学阐明,而这一观点与马克思的观点类似。最后,萨特重视个人实践,这是对马克思实践观的丰富和补充。通过比较可知,萨特的实践观和马克思的实践观既有共同之处,也有着根本性的分歧。相同点在于两者都强调实践的主体性和对历史唯物主义的肯定。不同点体现在萨特的实践观更强调个人实践的作用和个人实践的抽象主观性,而马克思则更为强调具体的实践和实践的社会属性。虽然萨特在借鉴马克思实践观的同时也对其做了存在主义的改造,却始终无法从形而上学的思辨方式中摆脱出来。但就“实践”而言,萨特的探索是对马克思实践概念的拓展,是在存在主义的马克思主义的语境中展开的论述,这种论述对于反对教条化的马克思主义有重要意义。
    This paper based on the method of textual study, through the concept of practice as the entry point, and focus on Sartre’s Critique of Dialectical Reason as a critical comment. On this basis, the paper base on the method of Comparative study to analyse the similarities and differences on the Sartre’s View of Practice with Marx’s, in order to clarify the logical relationship between them.This paper argues that the Sartre’s tantalization of practice is dialectics. The most important feature of Sartre’s practical view is its“dialectical nature”, and the“dialectical nature”is also an important feature of Marx’s practical view. Second, it is the feature of Sartre’s“practical totalisation”, and the“practical totalisation”is also the important content which Marx made reference to Hegel’s theory of dialectic. Again, Sartre hold that practice product philosophy, contain the philosophical feature and the practice is demonstrated by philosophy, which are very similar with Marx’s views. Finally, Sartre put emphasis on individual practice, which are the enrichment and supplement to Marx’s practical views.By comparison, between the Sartre’s practical view and the Marx’s practical view there are not only similarities but also fundamental differences. The similarities of both of them are reflect ed in emphasis on the practice of subjectivity and the recognition of Historical Materialism. Differences are reflected in Sartre’s practical view which put more emphasis on the role of individual practice and individual practice of subjectivity.Although Sartre make reference to Marx’s practical view and make a transformation of existentialism to Marx’s practical view, but he still can’t get out from Subjective Metaphysics. However, for "practice", Sartre’s exploration is the expansion to the Marx’s practical view, and it is the expanding discussion in the context of Marxist Existentialism, which have the great significance to against dogmatic Marxism.
        

萨特实践观与马克思实践观之比较

摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5-6
第一章 绪论8-16
    第一节 问题的缘起8-10
    第二节 国内外研究现状10-16
        一、对马克思实践观的研究10-13
        二、对萨特《辩证理性批判》及其实践观的研究13-16
第二章 萨特的实践观16-26
    第一节 萨特及其《辩证理性批判》16-17
    第二节 萨特实践概念的内涵17-18
    第三节 萨特的个人实践与“匮乏”范畴18-22
    第四节 萨特的个人实践和共同实践22-24
    第五节 萨特的实践、辩证理性与人学辩证法24-26
第三章 马克思的实践观26-34
    第一节 马克思实践观产生的历史进程26-29
    第二节 马克思实践观的内涵29-34
        一、以对黑格尔和费尔巴哈的超越为前提29-30
        二、以生产劳动为最基本实践形式30-32
        三、以人的社会实践为本质32-34
第四章 萨特实践观与马克思实践观的比较34-46
    第一节 实践概念的内涵34-36
    第二节 实践的主体性36-38
    第三节 实践的历史客观性38-40
    第四节 个人实践与社会实践40-42
    第五节 形而上学与实践具体42-44
    第六节 实践观在各自哲学中的地位44-46
第五章 结语46-48
参考文献48-50
作者在攻读硕士学位期间公开发表的论文50-51
致谢51
        下载全文需50


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