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吴鞠通批判性思维初探

A Study on the Critical Thinking of Wu Jutong

作者: 专业:科学技术哲学 导师:陈君 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 广州中医药大学

Keywords

Wu Jutong, critical thinking, modern value

        人们对于吴鞠通学术思想的研究,一般都是在医学成就和个人修养两个方面。至于从思维的层面来诠释,则相对比较少。有的学者尽管从思维层次着手,但一般都是从象数思维或者辨证思维等方面进行研究。因此,他们在不同程度上忽略了从批判思维的角度去把握和诠释吴鞠通学术思想。本文在对吴鞠通学术思想本身解读的基础上,以“批判性思维”为切入点,深入研究吴鞠通学术思想并整理其脉络,对于进一步把握和诠释吴鞠通学术思想具有重要意义。本文主要从思维角度对吴鞠通批判性思维进行解读,围绕“吴鞠通批判性思维”来展开讨论。通过对吴鞠通批判性思维形成的社会学术背景的分析,从而归纳概括吴鞠通批判性思维的影响及其现代启示。本文研究目标有三:首先,对吴鞠通批判性思维形成的社会学术背景进行分析,阐述吴鞠通批判性思维的概念及其含义;其次,从思维方法角度对吴鞠通批判性思维进行把握,诠释吴鞠通批判性思维的特征;最后,归纳概括吴鞠通批判性思维的影响以及现代启示,为学习中医的后来人作参考。本文以辩证唯物主义为指导,并坚持实事求是的原则,试图对吴鞠通学术思想进行整体的把握和深层次的诠释。在此基础上,尝试从思维层面对吴鞠通批判性思维进行分析和归纳,并进一步探讨其影响及价值地位。吴鞠通批判性思维建立在自身开放的态度上,并不断的反思和监控自己的思维,从而形成了以“求真”、“公正”、“质疑与反思”为核心的批判精神。不管是在日常生活学习上,还是在医学实践中,吴鞠通都勤于思考,不尽信于书本,不迷信于权威,而是批判地继承和创新。纵观吴鞠通的一生,《温病条辨》虽说是其在学术上取得的最高成就,然批判性思维乃是其人生中的一颗璀璨明珠。
    Previous research on the academic thought of Wu Jutong tends to focus more on his medical skills and ethics, and few study has been done regarding his thinking pattern. Though some scholars did research on Wu’s thinking pattern, their attention was usually drawn to such fields as diagram-number thinking, analogical thinking, dynamic thinking, system thinking and dialectical thinking, etc. while the perspective of critical thinking is neglected to a certain extent in terms of the interpretation of Wu’s thought. Therefore, it is of great value and significance to achieve a veritable comprehension of Wu’s academic thought on the basis of a re-collecting and sorting of material in relation to his thinking pattern in line with the principle of "seeking truth from facts" and by means of taking "critical thinking" as the main line, which will enable a furtherly profound and thought-provoking approach of Wu’s academic heritage.The present thesis attempts to approach Wu’s critical thinking heritage from three major perspective, namely the socio-cultural backgrounds, the interpretation of thinking pattern and the modern influence and reassessed value. The research objective of this thesis is threefold. First, by investigating the socio-cultural backgrounds of Wu, we endeavor to discover and explicate the origin of his critical thinking; second, by interpreting Wu’s critical thinking from the perspective of thinking mentality, we endeavor to deepen the understanding of Wu’s thinking pattern; third, by elaborating on the influence of Wu’s critical thinking and reassessment of its modern significance, we aim at extracting and providing reference for contemporary life. The present study combines certain research methods such as literature research and philosophical reflection, macroscopic and microscopic analyses, straightening out of historical records and elevation on a logical basis, and tries to propose an integrated approach to solve the research questions. The tendency of critical thinking and critical thinking skills are placed in the time-setting of present and future, which constitutes the basic logical framework.The thesis is guided by the dialectical materialism, combined with the existing research findings, and adopt a philosophical way of thinking in order to extract the good and discard the dregs from traditional culture, thus proposing a better way out for the valuable heritage of Chinese medicine, in particular the excellent thought within. Furthermore, the thesis explores its modern value, and aims to tell people that critical thinking is not only a form of thinking parallel to the informal logic, but also a good quality when thinking is concerned. People should adhere to such critical thinking-based learning methods and attitudes as independent thinking, rhetorical questions, multidimensional textual research and reflection, and get rid of such fetters as book-only doctrine, unreasonable belief in authority, experience-orientation and blind conformity.
        

吴鞠通批判性思维初探

摘要3-4
Abstract4-5
引言8-9
第一章 绪论9-13
    一、研究背景及意义9
        (一) 研究背景9
        (二) 研究意义9
    二、国内研究概况9-11
        (一) 吴鞠通批判性思维研究现状10
        (二) 吴鞠通批判性思维研究展望10-11
    三、研究目的和方法11-13
        (一) 研究目的11
        (二) 研究方法11-12
        (三) 技术路线12-13
第二章 吴鞠通批判性思维形成的背景13-19
    一、批判性思维概念的界定13-16
        (一) 批判性思维的概念及其含义13-14
        (二) 传统思维框架下的批判性思维14
        (三) 东西方对批判性思维的认识和理解14-16
    二、吴鞠通批判性思维形成的社会背景16-17
    三、吴鞠通批判性思维形成的学术背景17-19
第三章 吴鞠通批判性思维的特征19-29
    一、吴鞠通批判性的思维倾向19-23
        (一) 吴鞠通批判性思维的前提条件19-20
        (二) 吴鞠通批判性思维的内在历程20-22
        (三) 吴鞠通批判性思维的精神核心22-23
    二、吴鞠通批判性思维的技能23-27
        (一) 吴鞠通对问题的界定及解析23
        (二) 吴鞠通区分和评价信息材料的能力23-24
        (三) 吴鞠通析病与治病的独特模型24-25
        (四) 吴鞠通批判性思维的整体思辨性25-26
        (五) 吴鞠通取类比象的逻辑分析26-27
    三、吴鞠通批判性思维的升华:实践创新27-29
        (一) 创立三焦辨证体系27
        (二) 临床与理论的反复推理、验证27-29
第四章 吴鞠通批判性思维对后来中医治学的影响和启示29-38
    一、吴鞠通批判性思维的影响29-32
        (一) 医学理论上的影响29-30
        (二) 治学精神上的影响30-31
        (三) 临床实践上的影响31-32
    二、吴鞠通批判性思维的现代启示32-38
        (一) 吴鞠通批判性思维对当代中医生学术气质培养的引领作用32-34
            1、当代中医教与学中批判意识的淡化32-33
            2、吴鞠通批判性思维引导中医生自我反思33-34
        (二) 吴鞠通批判性思维对中医生提高辨识能力有启示价值34-38
            1、辨别信息真伪是高素质中医人才的重要能力34-35
            2、吴鞠通批判性思维对青年学生的创新能力提供了思想方法和理论依据35-36
            3、吴鞠通批判性思维为中医与现代科技的融合提供了内在的可能36-38
结语38-39
参考文献39-41
在校期间发表论文情况41-42
致谢42
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