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布克金生态危机根源论及其解决路径研究

Research on the Origin of Ecological Crisis of Bookchin and Its Solutions

作者: 专业:科学技术哲学 导师:包庆德 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 内蒙古大学

Keywords

the origin of ecological crisis, hierarchy, construction of an ecological society, libertarian municipalism, eco-technology, decentralized economy

        随着当代社会的发展,人与自然之间的矛盾日益突出,生态危机呈现全球性趋势。美国社会生态学家默里·布克金用社会生态学理论分析生态危机,提出其独特的生态危机观。布克金认为,生态危机的根源在于等级制。等级制观念导致了人对人的支配,而人对人的支配又进一步导致了人对自然的支配,最终出现人与自然关系的恶化,呈现生态危机。面对日益严重的生态危机,布克金倡导建构一种生态社会来解决危机。通过对生态危机具体成因的分析,认识到制度安排的局限性、技术使用的负效性、资本运用的危害性是造成危机的具体原因。为了实现生态社会构想,布克金提倡在政治制度上实现自由市镇主义,技术形态上发展生态技术,经济结构上采用分散化经济。通过阐释布克金的生态危机根源论,笔者认识到生态社会建构实现具有局限性,但生态社会建构的具体方式(政治的、技术的和经济的)仍具有重要的价值。因此,笔者期望能从布克金生态危机根源论中得到启示,用于解决我国的生态危机问题。
    With the development of modern society, the contradiction between people and nature is prominent, and ecological crisis presents a global tendency. Murray Bookchin, American social ecologist, used the theory of social ecology to analyze ecological crisis, and put forward his unique idea about it. Bookchin believes that the origin of ecological crisis is hierarchy. The idea of hierarchy causes the domination between man and man which causes people to dominate nature, and it brings a further worsening of relations between people and nature, which finally appears ecological crisis. Confronted with the serious crisis, Bookchin advocated the construction of an ecological society to solve ecological crisis. Through analyzing specific problems of ecological crisis, we realized that limitations of institutional arrangements, negative effects of technique uses, and hazards of capital utilizations together cause ecological crisis. In order to realize the conception of ecological society, Bookchin proposed to achieve libertarian municipalism in political systems, eco-technology in technical forms, and decentralized economy in economic structures. By interpreting the origin of ecological crisis of Bookchin, the author knows limitations in the construction of an ecological society, but his specific ways (political, technical, and economic) still have significant values. Therefore, the author expects to get inspirations from the origin of ecological crisis, and use them to solve the problems in our country.
        

布克金生态危机根源论及其解决路径研究

中文摘要4-5
abstract5-6
一、引言9-16
    1.1 研究背景9-11
    1.2 国内外研究概况11-16
        1.2.1 国外研究概况11-14
        1.2.2 国内研究概况14-16
    1.3 研究内容与目标16
二、布克金论生态危机产生根源16-29
    2.1 生态意识的产生及其发展17-22
        2.1.1 《食品中的化学物质难题》:生态意识初显17-19
        2.1.2 《我们的人工环境》:生态意识进展19-21
        2.1.3 《生态学与革命思潮》:生态意识深化21-22
    2.2 生态危机根源演化22-29
        2.2.1 等级制的出现:生态危机根源23-26
        2.2.2 支配的存在26-27
        2.2.3 阶级的发展27-29
三、布克金论生态危机解决路径29-46
    3.1 生态危机具体成因再探30-34
        3.1.1 制度安排的局限性30-32
        3.1.2 技术使用的负效性32-33
        3.1.3 资本运行的危害性33-34
    3.2 生态危机解决路径——建构一种生态社会34-42
        3.2.1 生态社会的政治制度——自由市镇主义35-37
        3.2.2 生态社会的技术形态——生态技术37-40
        3.2.3 生态社会的经济结构——分散化经济40-42
    3.3 建构生态社会的原则42-46
        3.3.1 生态社会的意识观念形态:生态整体意识42-43
        3.3.2 生态社会的生存共同体形态:人类-生态共同体43-44
        3.3.3 生态社会的伦理文化形态:生态伦理44-46
四、布克金生态危机论的启示价值46-49
    4.1 生态危机论的政治价值46-47
    4.2 生态危机论的技术价值47-48
    4.3 生态危机论的经济价值48-49
五、结语49-51
参考文献51-56
致谢56-57
攻读学位期间发表的学术论文57
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