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马克思劳动观与汉娜·阿伦特劳动观之比较研究

Comparative Study for Marx’s Labor Viewpoint and Hannah Arendt’s Labor Viewpoint

作者: 专业:马克思主义哲学 导师:张吉维 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 内蒙古大学

Keywords

labor, alienation, violence, freedom

        马克思的劳动概念内涵比较丰富,一方面包括一般意义上的人类劳动,另一方面又包括具体社会形态下的劳动。他的劳动概念表现出以下三个方面的特征:第一,是合目的性的、合规律性的统一;第二,是自然性和社会性结合的活动;第三,是传承性与创造性相统一的活动。马克思从劳动入手对资本主义生产方式进行了分析,揭示了资本主义运行的奥秘,在这个过程里,马克思的劳动观逐渐丰富。可以说,劳动是马克思研究人类社会的钥匙。汉娜·阿伦特的劳动概念相对比较单一,她认为劳动只是为人类生存提供基本生活资料的活动,是人类活动中最具基础性的活动。劳动本应该属于私人领域,但是进入现代后它的地位不断上升,其进入公共领域促使我们进入了消费者社会。在这一社会里,所有的事物都变成了消费对象,人都变成了生产和消费的动物,不再具有思考与行动的能力。二者的劳动观由于理论的出发点不同所以存在很大的差异。马克思的劳动概念其内涵比较丰富,既包括一般意义上的劳动,也包括具体历史形态下的劳动,他认为劳动创造了人,是人类社会中最具生产性的力量。而阿伦特仅把劳动看做人类生活中基础性的活动。阿伦特认为,马克思不仅过分夸大了劳动的作用,还把其劳动概念引入政治,这直接导致暴力可能成为政治领域中最具生产性的因素,而阿伦特强烈反对政治领域中暴力的存在。马克思指出,人的自由的实现是以劳动解放为基础的,首先必须废除雇佣劳动,使劳动回归到自由自觉的活动,人的自由才能实现。而阿伦特认为,人的自由的实现体现在政治生活中,只有进入公共领域参与国家事务的管理,人才能拥有真正意义上的自由,劳动只是自由实现的前政治条件。
    The conception of labor of Marx includes many rich meanings. On the one hand, it includes the general sense of human labor. On the other hand, it includes the labor of concrete society. Marx’s labor shows the characteristics in three aspects. Firstly, the activities what have disciplines and goals. Secondly, the activities what have sociality and naturality. Thirdly, the activities what have hereditability and creativity. Marx starts from the labor to analyze the mode of production of capitalism, which reveals the mysteries of capitalism. In this process, the conception of labor of Mars is riched gradually. It can be said that the conception of labor is the key to the studies of human society.The conception of labor of Hannah Arendt is relatively single. She thinks that labor just offers the basic productions for human survival. And it is the most basic activities in human activities. She believes that labor should belong to the private field. But its status is rising in modern society. Labor enters the public field, which leads us to come into a consumer’s society. In this society, everything becomes consumption targets. And people become the animals of consumption who don’t have abilities of thinking and acting.Their conceptions of labor have different starting points. So their conceptions of labor are also different. The conception of labor of Marx includes many rich meanings. Not only should include general conception, but also should include the conception which is in concrete history conditions. He thinks that labor creates the human beings. And the labor is an activity that has the most productivity. But Arendt only argues it is a basic activity in human’s life. Arendt thinks that Marx excessively exaggerates the function of the labor. He introduces the conception of labor into political realms, which will lead violence to become the most important force in political realms. While Arendt opposes strongly the violence of political realms. Marx points out that the realization of the freedom is based on labor liberation. On the one hand, we must abolish wage labor. On the other hand, we should make labor return to free activities. But Arendt believes that the realization of freedom exists in political life. When human beings enter into political realms and participate in national administration affairs, they can have real freedom.
        

马克思劳动观与汉娜·阿伦特劳动观之比较研究

摘要4-6
ABSTRACT6-8
绪论11-17
    选题背景和意义11-12
        选题背景11
        选题意义11-12
    国内外研究现状12-15
        国内外学者关于马克思劳动观的研究现状12-13
        国内外学者关于汉娜·阿伦特劳动观的研究现状13-14
        国内外学者关于二者比较的研究现状14-15
    研究内容和方法15-17
        研究内容15-16
        研究方法16-17
一、马克思的劳动观17-30
    1.1 马克思“劳动”概念的内涵17-20
        1.1.1 一般意义上的“劳动”18
        1.1.2 具体社会形态下的“劳动”18-20
    1.2 马克思劳动观的特征20-21
    1.3 马克思劳动观的发展历程及其具体内容21-26
        1.3.1 马克思劳动观的初创——异化劳动理论的建立21-24
        1.3.2 马克思劳动观的发展——唯物史观的创立24-25
        1.3.3 马克思劳动观的成熟——劳动价值论的创立25-26
    1.4 马克思劳动观的历史地位和作用26-30
        1.4.1 在唯物史观中的地位26-28
        1.4.2 探索了人类劳动的本质28-30
二、汉娜·阿伦特的劳动观30-38
    2.1 人的活动的三分法:劳动、工作、行动30-31
    2.2 作为生命本身的劳动31-33
    2.3 劳动与工作33-34
    2.4 劳动与行动34-35
    2.5 消费者社会35-38
三、马克思的劳动观和汉娜·阿伦特的劳动观的比较38-47
    3.1 马克思的劳动观和汉娜·阿伦特的劳动观的不同点38-45
        3.1.1 关于劳动概念的分歧38-41
        3.1.2 关于劳动和暴力革命的关系的不同看法41-43
        3.1.3 关于劳动与自由的关系的不同设想43-45
    3.2 马克思的劳动观和汉娜·阿伦特的劳动观的相同点45-47
        3.2.1 对异化现象的批判45-46
        3.2.2 对人类生存境况的反思46-47
结语47-48
参考文献48-50
致谢50
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