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莫里茨·石里克判断理论研究

Study on the Judgmen Theory of Moritz Schlick

作者: 专业:外国哲学 导师:许占君 年度:2015 学位:硕士  院校: 内蒙古大学

Keywords

Schlick, judgment, concept, cognitive, truth

        莫里茨·石里克是逻辑经验主义重要代表人物,其认识论观点集中表现在《普通认识论》中。石里克的认识论主要从逻辑学入手,将判断作为认识论研究的重要对象,判断理论贯穿其整个认识论。他认为,判断的本质就是标示事实的记号,判断始终标示对象之间关系的存在,所以不存在单项判断;石里克主要探讨了出现于认识论中的肯定判断和否定判断、全称判断和特称判断、必然判断和或然判断、分析判断和综合判断等在构建科学知识上的作用。石里克在批判康德先天综合判断理论的同时,论证了自己的知识观;认知就是在一个对象中再发现另一个对象。概念和判断是我们认知的必要工具。定义是一种在认知中有重要作用的特殊判断。认知结果是由判断表达的,每个真判断,如果它不是定义,也不是同语反复,那么它表达知识。判断不一定是真理,但真理一定由判断表达。真理分为事实性真理和概念性真理。真判断之间相互联系形成知识。石里克关于概念和判断互相依存和互相规定的观点准确描述了概念和判断之间的真正关系;石里克关于判断及其真理性的思想,清除了以往学者关于判断及其真理性的许多规定性,便于适应石里克关于知识的要求,这体现着他所推崇的“思维经济原则”;石里克所坚持的科学知识由全称且肯定的判断表达、模态判断不能表达知识而只能表达认识者的心理态度、以及先天综合判断的不可能等等思想,深刻揭示了科学知识的本质以及逻辑的与心理的东西的区别。当然,石里克的认识论中也存在不同程度的缺陷。虽然石里克强调科学努力追求的“思维经济原则”,但却没有给出明确的划分标准;石里克哲学的唯名论色彩导致了他在认识论上具有唯我论倾向。
    Moritz Schlick is one of the founding father of Logical Empiricism, and his thoughts of epistemology are intensively included in his Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre (General Theory of Knowledge). Schlick’s epistemology takes judgment as the research object from the aspect of Logistics, and judgment theory penetrates his whole epistemology. He believes that the essence of judgment is the sign which indicates fact, and judgment always indicates the relationship between objects. Thus, there is no monomial judgment. Besides, Schlick mainly discusses the effects of positive judgment and negative judgment, universal judgment and particular judgment, apodictic judgment and problematic judgment, as well as analytic judgment and synthetic judgment on constructing disciplinary knowledge. Through criticizing Kant’s synthetic a priori, Schlick demonstrates his own view of knowledge: cognition is perceiving one object through another, and concept and judgment are necessary tool for cognition. Definition is a kind of special judgment which has important effects in cognition. The result of cognition is expressed by judgment. Every true judgment expresses knowledge, if it isn’t a definition or a tautology. Judgment may not always be the knowledge; however, truth must be expressed through judgment. Truth can be divided into factual truth and conceptual truth. Interconnection between true judgment forms knowledge.Schlick’s idea concerning the inter-dependence and inter-regulation between concept and judgment describes precisely the real relationship between concept and judgment. Moreover, his thought regarding judgment and its truthfulness eliminates former scholars’ regularity of judgment and its truthfulness, adapting to Schlick’s requirements on knowledge, which reflects the principle of economy thought he highly praised. Scientific knowledge which Schlick insists on is expressed by the judgment that is an positive and universal, Modal judgments only express the psychological attitude which can not express knowledge, synthetic a priori judgment is impossible, and so on. All of the opinions profoundly revels the essence of scientific knowledge and the differences between logic and mentality. Certainly, there are some drawbacks in Schlick’s epistemology. For instance, although Schlick emphasizes science pursues the principle of economy thought, he doesn’t provide clear standard of division. Schlick’s nominalism leads to his tendency of solipsism.
        

莫里茨·石里克判断理论研究

摘要4-6
ABSTRACT6-7
绪论9-14
    一、选题意义及研究方法9-10
    二、国内外研究综述10-14
第一章 石里克论判断的本质14-18
    一、作为标示事实记号的判断14-16
    二、对所谓单项判断的批判16-18
第二章 石里克论判断的分类18-26
    一、肯定判断和否定判断18-19
    二、全称判断和特称判断19-20
    三、必然判断和或然判断20-21
    四、分析判断和综合判断21-26
第三章 石里克论判断与认知26-35
    一、作为认知工具的概念26-28
    二、作为定义的判断28-29
    三、作为认知核心的再认29-31
    四、作为真理的判断31-35
第四章 对石里克判断理论的评价35-43
    一、关于判断与概念及其关系35-36
    二、关于判断及其真理性36-38
    三、关于认识论中几种特殊的判断38-40
    四、“思维经济原则”标准的缺失40-41
    五、石里克判断理论中的唯我论倾向41-43
结语43-44
参考文献44-46
致谢46
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